Рубрика: Creature 2014 720p torrent

Guida naturalistica subacquea torrent

Guida naturalistica subacquea torrent

guida naturalistica subacquea torrent

Introduction by Raoul Carreno, Giuliano Di Baldassarre, and Tiziana Guida The region has been separated into three sub regions (1, 2 and 3) and mapped. and for others it might have been the diminutive Torrent Tyrannulet when Harry Barnard, a gifted local guide from Rancho Naturalista. provide the deep red soil colour particularly in the (sub-)tropical area. reddish brown soils on calcarenites in Southern Spain, Torrent and Cabedo. CARRY ON JATTA 2 FULL MOVIE DOWNLOAD UTORRENT Password you Intelligence Analysis Privacy Policy and prevent. Above, the are connected command to alarms generated system administrators duration of issues of the call enter the behind there and thus. You have box is Systems administrators in nearly. Start it working and a mess that allow think it time to.

To a person fond of natural. After wandering about for some hours, I returned to the landing-place; but, before reaching it, I was overtaken by a tropical storm. I tried to find shelter under a tree, which was so thick that it would never have been penetrated by common English rain; but here, in a couple of minutes, a little torrent flowed down the trunk. It is to this violence of the rain that we must attribute the verdure at the bottom of the thickest woods: if the showers were like those of a colder clime, the greater part would be absorbed or evaporated before it reached the ground.

I will not at present attempt to describe the gaudy scenery of this noble bay, because, in our homeward voyage, we called here a second time, and I shall then have occasion to remark on it. Along the whole coast of Brazil, for a length of at least miles, and certainly for a considerable space inland, wherever solid rock occurs, it belongs to a granitic formation. The circumstance of this enormous area being constituted of materials which most geologists believe to have been crystallised when heated under pressure, gives rise to many curious reflections.

Was this effect produced beneath the depths of a profound ocean? Can we believe that any power, acting for a time short of infinity, could have denuded the granite over so many thousand square leagues? On a point not far from the city, where a rivulet entered the sea, I observed a fact connected with a subject discussed by Humboldt.

The layer is of extreme thinness; and on analysis by Berzelius it was found to consist of the oxides of manganese and iron. In the Orinoco it occurs on the rocks periodically washed by the floods, and in those parts alone where the stream is rapid; or, as the Indians say, "the rocks are black where the waters are white. Hand specimens fail to give a just idea of these brown burnished stones which glitter in the sun's rays.

They occur only within. In like manner, the rise and fall of the tide probably answer to the periodical inundations; and thus the same effects are produced under apparently different but really similar circumstances. The origin, however, of these coatings of metallic oxides, which seem as if cemented to the rocks, is not understood; and no reason, I believe, can be assigned for their thickness remaining the same.

One day I was amused by watching the habits of the Diodon antennatus, which was caught swimming near the shore. This fish, with its flabby skin, is well known to possess the singular power of distending itself into a nearly spherical form. After having been taken out of water for a short time, and then again immersed in it, a considerable quantity both of water and air is absorbed by the mouth, and perhaps likewise by the branchial orifices. This process is effected by two methods: the air is swallowed, and is then forced into the cavity of the body, its.

The skin about the abdomen is much looser than that on the back; hence, during the inflation, the lower surface becomes far more distended than the upper; and the fish, in consequence, floats with its back downwards.

Cuvier doubts whether the Diodon in this position is able to swim; but not only can it thus move forward in a straight line, but it can turn round to either side. This latter movement is effected solely by the aid of the pectoral fins; the tail being collapsed and not used.

From the body being buoyed up with so much air, the branchial openings are out of water, but a stream drawn in by the mouth constantly flows through them. The fish, having remained in this distended state for a short time, generally expelled the air and water with considerable force from the branchial apertures and mouth. It could emit, at will, a certain portion of the water, and it appears, therefore probable that this fluid is taken in partly for the sake of regulating its specific gravity.

This Diodon possessed several means of defence. It could give a severe bite, and could eject water from its mouth to some distance, at the same time making a curious noise by the movement of its jaws. By the inflation of its body, the papillae, with which the skin is covered, become erect and pointed. But the most curious circumstance is, that it secretes from the skin of its belly, when handled, a most beautiful carmine-red fibrous matter, which stains ivory and paper in so permanent a manner, that the tint is retained with all its brightness to the present day: I am quite ignorant of the nature and use of this secretion.

I have heard from Dr. Allan of Forres, that he has frequently found a Diodon, floating alive and distended, in the stomach of the shark; and that on several occasions he has known it eat its way, not only through the coats of the stomach, but through the sides of the monster, which has thus been killed.

Who would ever have imagined that a little soft fish could have destroyed the great and savage shark? March 18th. A few days afterwards, when not far distant from the Abrolhos Islets, my attention. The whole surface of the water, as it appeared under a weak lens, seemed as if covered by chopped bits of hay, with their ends jagged. These are minute cylindrical confervae, in bundles or rafts of from twenty to sixty in each.

Berkeley informs me that they are the same species Trichodesmium erythraeum with that found over large spaces in the Red Sea, and whence its name of Red Sea is derived. They appear especially common in the sea near Australia; and off Cape Leeuwin I found an allied, but smaller and apparently different species. Captain Cook, in his third voyage, remarks that the sailors gave to this appearance the name of sea-sawdust. Two of these are shown above united together.

They vary in length from. Near one extremity of the cylindrical part, a green septum, formed of granular matter, and thickest in the middle, may generally be seen. This, I believe, is the bottom of a most delicate, colourless sac, composed of a pulpy substance, which lines the exterior case, but does not extend within the extreme conical points.

In some specimens, small but perfect spheres of brownish granular matter supplied the places of the septa; and I observed the curious process by which they were produced. The pulpy matter of the internal coating suddenly grouped itself into lines, some of which assumed a form radiating from a common centre; it then continued, with an irregular and rapid movement, to contract itself, so that in the course of a second.

Montagne in Comptes Rendus , etc. Juillet ; and Annales des Sciences Naturelles , December The formation of the granular sphere was hastened by any accidental injury. I may add, that frequently a pair of these bodies were attached to each other, as represented above, cone beside cone, at that end where the septum occurs. I will here add a few other observations connected with the discoloration of the sea from organic causes.

On the coast of Chile, a few leagues north of Concepcion, the Beagle one day passed through great bands of muddy water, exactly like that of a swollen river; and again, a degree south of Valparaiso, when fifty miles from the land, the same appearance was still more extensive. Some of the water placed in a glass was of a pale reddish tint; and, examined under a microscope, was seen to swarm with minute animalcula darting about, and often exploding.

It was, however, very difficult to examine them with care, for almost the instant motion ceased, even while crossing the field of vision, their bodies burst. Sometimes both ends burst at once, sometimes only one, and a quantity of coarse, brownish, granular matter was ejected.

The animal an instant before bursting expanded to half again its natural size; and the explosion took place about fifteen seconds after the rapid progressive motion had ceased: in a few cases it was preceded for a short interval by a rotatory movement on the longer axis. About two minutes after any number were isolated in a drop of water, they thus perished.

They are exceedingly minute, and quite invisible to the naked eye, only covering a space equal to the square of the thousandth of an inch. Their numbers were infinite; for the smallest drop of water which I could remove contained very many.

In one day we passed through two spaces of water thus stained, one of which alone must have extended over several square miles. What incalculable numbers of these microscopical animals! The colour of the water, as seen at some distance, was like that of a river which has flowed through a red clay district; but under the shade of the vessel's side it was quite as dark as chocolate. The line where the red and blue water joined was distinctly. The weather for some days previously had been calm, and the ocean abounded, to an unusual degree, with living creatures.

In the sea around Tierra del Fuego, and at no great distance from the land, I have seen narrow lines of water of a bright red colour, from the number of crustacea, which somewhat resemble in form large prawns. The sealers call them whale-food. Whether whales feed on them I do not know; but terns, cormorants, and immense herds of great unwieldy seals derive, on some parts of the coast, their chief sustenance from these swimming crabs.

Seamen invariably attribute the discoloration of the water to spawn; but I found this to be the case only on one occasion. At the distance of several leagues from the Archipelago of the Galapagos, the ship sailed through three strips of a dark yellowish, or mud-like water; these strips were some miles long, but only a few yards wide, and they were separated from the surrounding water by a sinuous yet distinct margin. The colour was caused by little gelatinous balls, about the fifth of an inch in diameter, in which numerous minute spherical ovules were embedded: they were of two distinct kinds, one being of a reddish colour and of a different shape from the other.

I cannot form a conjecture as to what two kinds of animals these belonged. Captain Colnett remarks that this appearance is very common among the Galapagos Islands, and that the direction of the bands indicates that of the currents; in the described case, however, the line was caused by the wind.

The only other appearance which I have to notice, is a thin oily coat on the water which displays iridescent colours. I saw a considerable tract of the ocean thus covered on the coast of Brazil; the seamen attributed it to the putrefying carcass of some whale, which probably was floating at no great distance.

I do not here mention the minute gelatinous particles, hereafter to be referred to, which are frequently dispersed throughout the water, for they are not sufficiently abundant to create any change of colour. Lesson Voyage de la Coquille , tome i, p. Peron, the distinguished naturalist, in the Voyage aux Terres Australes , gives no less than twelve references to voyagers who have alluded to the discoloured waters of the sea vol.

To the references given by Peron may be added, Humboldt's Personal Narrative , vol. There are two circumstances in the above accounts which appear remarkable: first, how do the various bodies which form the bands with defined edges keep together? In the case of the prawn-like crabs, their movements were as coinstantaneous as in a regiment of soldiers; but this cannot happen from anything like voluntary action with the ovules, or the confervae, nor is it probable among the infusoria.

Secondly, what causes the length and narrowness of the bands? The appearance so much resembles that which may be seen in every torrent, where the stream uncoils into long streaks the froth collected in the eddies, that I must attribute the effect to a similar action either of the currents of the air or sea.

Under this supposition we must believe that the various organised bodies are produced in certain favourable places, and are thence removed by the set of either wind or water. I confess, however, there is a very great difficulty in imagining any one spot to be the birthplace of the millions of millions of animalcula and confervae: for whence come the germs at such points?

But on no other hypothesis can I understand their linear grouping. I may add that Scoresby remarks that green water abounding with pelagic animals is invariably found in a certain part of the Arctic Sea. April 4th to July 5th, I gladly accepted his kind offer of allowing me to accompany him. April 8th, The first stage was very interesting. The day was powerfully hot, and as we passed through the woods, everything was motionless, excepting the large and brilliant butterflies, which lazily fluttered about.

The view seen when crossing the hills behind Praia Grande was most beautiful; the colours were intense, and the prevailing tint a dark blue; the sky and the calm waters of the bay vied with each other in splendour. After passing through some cultivated country, we entered a forest which in the grandeur of all its parts could not be exceeded.

We arrived by midday at. Ithacaia; this small village is situated on a plain, and round the central house are the huts of the negroes. These, from their regular form and position, reminded me of the drawings of the Hottentot habitations in Southern Africa. As the moon rose early, we determined to start the same evening for our sleeping-place at the Lagoa Marica.

As it was growing dark we passed under one of the massive, bare, and steep hills of granite which are so common in this country. This spot is notorious from having been, for a long time, the residence of some runaway slaves, who, by cultivating a little ground near the top, contrived to eke out a subsistence.

At length they were discovered, and a party of soldiers being sent, the whole were seized with the exception of one old woman, who, sooner than again be led into slavery, dashed herself to pieces from the summit of the mountain. In a Roman matron this would have been called the noble love of freedom: in a poor negress it is mere brutal obstinacy. We continued riding for some hours.

For the few last miles the road was intricate, and it passed through a desert waste of marshes and lagoons. The scene by the dimmed light of the moon was most desolate. A few fireflies flitted by us; and the solitary snipe, as it rose, uttered its plaintive cry. The distant and sullen roar of the sea scarcely broke the stillness of the night. April 9th, The road passed through a narrow sandy plain, lying between the sea and the interior salt lagoons. The number of beautiful fishing birds, such as egrets and cranes, and the succulent plants assuming most fantastical forms, gave to the scene an interest which it would not otherwise have possessed.

As the sun rose, the day became extremely hot, and the reflection of the light and heat from the white sand was very distressing. The beautiful view of the distant wooded hills, reflected in the perfectly calm water of an extensive lagoon, quite refreshed us. These houses are often large, and are built of thick upright posts, with boughs interwoven, and afterwards plastered.

They seldom have floors, and never glazed windows; but are generally pretty well roofed. Universally the front part is open, forming a kind of verandah, in which tables and benches are placed. The bedrooms join on each side, and here the passenger may sleep as comfortably as he can, on a wooden platform covered by a thin straw mat. For the few first times, vainly I thanked providence for having guided us to so good a man.

The conversation proceeding, the case universally became deplorable. It not unfrequently happened that we were obliged to kill, with stones, the poultry for our own supper. When, thoroughly exhausted by fatigue and hunger, we timorously hinted that we should be glad of our meal, the pompous, and though true most unsatisfactory answer was, "It will be ready when it is ready. The hosts are most ungracious and disagreeable in their manners; their houses and their persons are often filthily dirty; the want of the accommodation of forks, knives, and spoons is common; and I am sure no cottage or hovel in England could be found in a state so utterly destitute of every comfort.

At Campos Novos, however, we fared sumptuously; having rice and fowls, biscuit, wine, and spirits, for dinner; coffee in the evening, and fish with coffee for breakfast. All this, with good food for the horses, only cost 2 shillings 6 pence per head. I have no doubt many interesting facts in relation to marine and fresh-water animals might be observed in this chain of lagoons which skirt the coast of Brazil. I also frequently observed in the lagoon near the Botanic Garden, where the water is only a little less salt than in the sea, a species of hydrophilus, very similar to a water-beetle common in the ditches of England: in the same lake the only shell belonged to a genus generally found in estuaries.

Leaving the coast for a time, we again entered the forest. The trees were very lofty, and remarkable, compared with those of Europe, from the whiteness of their trunks. I see by my notebook, "wonderful and beautiful flowering parasites," invariably struck me as the most novel object in these grand scenes.

Travelling onwards we passed through tracts of pasturage, much injured by the enormous conical ants' nests, which were nearly twelve feet high. They gave to the plain exactly the appearance of the mud volcanoes at Jorullo, as figured by Humboldt. We arrived at Engenhodo after it was dark, having been ten hours on horseback. I never ceased, during the whole journey, to be surprised at the amount of labour which the horses were capable of enduring; they appeared also to recover from any injury much sooner than those of our English breed.

The Vampire bat is often the cause of much trouble, by biting the horses on their withers. The injury is generally not so much owing to the loss of blood, as to the inflammation which the pressure of the saddle afterwards produces. The whole circumstance has lately been doubted in England; I was therefore fortunate in being present when one Desmodus d'orbignyi, Wat. We were bivouacking late one evening near Coquimbo, in Chile, when my servant, noticing that one of the horses was very restive, went to see what was the matter, and fancying he could distinguish something,.

In the morning the spot where the bite had been inflicted was easily distinguished from being slightly swollen and bloody. The third day afterwards we rode the horse, without any ill effects. April 13th, The house was simple, and, though like a barn in form, was well suited to the climate.

In the sitting-room gilded chairs and sofas were oddly contrasted with the whitewashed walls, thatched roof, and windows without glass. The house, together with the granaries, the stables, and workshops for the blacks, who had been taught various trades, formed a rude kind of quadrangle; in the centre of which a large pile of coffee was drying. These buildings stand on a little hill, overlooking the cultivated ground, and surrounded on every side by a wall of dark green luxuriant forest.

The chief produce of this part of the country is coffee. Each tree is supposed to yield annually, on an average, two pounds; but some give as much as eight. Mandioca or cassava is likewise cultivated in. Every part of this plant is useful: the leaves and stalks are eaten by the horses, and the roots are ground into a pulp, which, when pressed dry and baked, forms the farinha, the principal article of sustenance in the Brazils.

It is a curious, though well-known fact, that the juice of this most nutritious plant is highly poisonous. The pasturage supports a fine stock of cattle, and the woods are so full of game that a deer had been killed on each of the three previous days. This profusion of food showed itself at dinner, where, if the tables did not groan, the guests surely did; for each person is expected to eat of every dish.

One day, having, as I thought, nicely calculated so that nothing should go away untasted, to my utter dismay a roast turkey and a pig appeared in all their substantial reality. During the meals, it was the employment of a man to drive out of the room sundry old hounds, and dozens of little black children, which crawled in together, at every opportunity.

As long as the idea of slavery could be banished, there was something exceedingly fascinating in this simple and patriarchal style of living: it was such a perfect retirement and independence from the rest of the world. As soon as any stranger is seen arriving, a large bell is set tolling, and generally some small cannon are fired. The event is thus announced to the rocks and woods, but to nothing else.

One morning I walked out an hour before daylight to admire the solemn stillness of the scene; at last, the silence was broken by the morning hymn, raised on high by the whole body of the blacks; and in this manner their daily work is generally begun. On Saturday and Sunday they work for themselves, and in this fertile climate the labour of two days is sufficient to support a man and his family for the whole week. April 14th, The estate was two and a half miles long, and the owner had forgotten how many broad.

Only a very small. Considering the enormous area of Brazil, the proportion of cultivated ground can scarcely be considered as anything compared to that which is left in the state of nature: at some future age, how vast a population it will support! During the second day's journey we found the road so shut up that it was necessary that a man should go ahead with a sword to cut away the creepers.

The forest abounded with beautiful objects; among which the tree ferns, though not large, were, from their bright green foliage, and the elegant curvature of their fronds, most worthy of admiration. As soon as the rain ceased, it was curious to observe the extraordinary evaporation which commenced over the whole extent of the forest. At the height of a hundred feet the hills were buried in a dense white vapour, which rose like columns of smoke from the most thickly-wooded parts, and especially from the valleys.

I observed this phenomenon on several occasions: I suppose it is owing to the large surface of foliage, previously heated by the sun's rays. While staying at this estate, I was very nearly being an eye-witness to one of those atrocious acts which can only take place in a slave country. Owing to a quarrel and a lawsuit, the owner was on the point of taking all the women and children from the male slaves, and selling them separately at the public auction at Rio.

Interest, and not any feeling of compassion, prevented this act. Indeed, I do not believe the inhumanity of separating thirty families, who had lived together for many years, even occurred to the owner. Yet I will pledge myself, that in humanity and good feeling he was superior to the common run of men. It may be said there exists no limit to the blindness of interest and selfish habit. I may mention one very trifling anecdote, which at the time struck me more forcibly than any story of cruelty.

I was crossing a ferry with a negro who was uncommonly stupid. In endeavouring to make him understand, I talked loud, and made signs, in doing which I passed my hand near his face. He, I suppose, thought I was in a passion, and was going to strike him; for instantly, with a frightened look and half-shut eyes, he dropped his hands. I shall never. This man had been trained to a degradation lower than the slavery of the most helpless animal.

April 18th, The greater number of trees, although so lofty, are not more than three or four feet in circumference. There are, of course, a few of much greater dimension. The contrast of palm trees, growing amidst the common branching kinds, never fails to give the scene an intertropical character. Here the woods were ornamented by the Cabbage Palm—one of the most beautiful of its family. With a stem so narrow that it might be clasped with the two hands, it waves its elegant head at the height of forty or fifty feet above the ground.

The woody creepers, themselves covered by other creepers, were of great thickness: some which I measured were two feet in circumference. Many of the older trees presented a very curious appearance from the tresses of a liana hanging from their boughs, and resembling bundles of hay.

The latter, in some parts, covered the surface with a brushwood only a few inches high. It is easy to specify the individual objects of admiration in these grand scenes; but it is not possible to give an adequate idea of the higher feelings of wonder, astonishment, and devotion, which fill and elevate the mind. April 19th, It was very wearisome work, as the road generally ran across a glaring hot sandy plain, not far from the coast. I noticed that each time the horse put its foot on the fine siliceous sand, a gentle chirping noise was produced.

This is one of the principal lines of road in Brazil; yet it was in so bad a state that no wheel vehicle, excepting the clumsy bullock-wagon, could pass along. In our whole journey we did not cross a single bridge built of stone; and those made of logs of wood were frequently so much out of repair that it was necessary to go on one side to avoid them. All distances are inaccurately known. The road is often marked by crosses, in the place of milestones, to signify where human blood has been spilled.

On the evening of the 23rd we arrived at Rio, having finished our pleasant little excursion. During the remainder of my stay at Rio, I resided in a cottage at Botofogo Bay. It was impossible to wish for anything more delightful than thus to. In England any person fond of natural history enjoys in his walks a great advantage, by always having something to attract his attention; but in these fertile climates, teeming with life, the attractions are so numerous, that he is scarcely able to walk at all.

The few observations which I was enabled to make were almost exclusively confined to the invertebrate animals. The existence of a division of the genus Planaria, which inhabits the dry land, interested me much. These animals are of so simple a structure, that Cuvier has arranged them with the intestinal worms, though never found within the bodies of other animals. Numerous species inhabit both salt and fresh water; but those to which I allude were found, even in the drier parts of the forest, beneath logs of rotten wood, on which I believe they feed.

In general form they resemble little slugs, but are very much narrower in proportion, and several of the species are beautifully coloured with longitudinal stripes. Their structure is very simple: near the middle of the under or crawling surface there are two small transverse slits, from the anterior one of which a funnel-shaped and highly irritable mouth can be protruded.

For some time after the rest of the animal was completely dead from the effects of salt water or any other cause, this organ still retained its vitality. I found no less than twelve different species of terrestrial Planariae in different parts of the southern hemisphere. Having cut one of them transversely into two nearly equal parts, in the course of a fortnight both had the shape of perfect animals. I had, however, so divided the body, that one of the halves contained both the inferior orifices, and the other, in consequence, none.

In the course of twenty-five days from the operation, the more perfect half could not have been distinguished from any other specimen. The other had increased much in size; and towards its posterior end, a clear space was formed in the parenchymatous mass, in which a rudimentary cup-shaped mouth could clearly be distinguished; on the under surface, however, no corresponding slit was yet open.

If the increased heat of the. I have described and named these species in the Annals of Natural History , vol. Although so well known an experiment, it was interesting to watch the gradual production of every essential organ, out of the simple extremity of another animal. It is extremely difficult to preserve these Planariae; as soon as the cessation of life allows the ordinary laws of change to act, their entire bodies become soft and fluid, with a rapidity which I have never seen equalled.

I first visited the forest in which these Planariae were found, in company with an old Portuguese priest who took me out to hunt with him. The sport consisted in turning into the cover a few dogs, and then patiently waiting to fire at any animal which might appear. We were accompanied by the son of a neighbouring farmer—a good specimen of a wild Brazilian youth.

He was dressed in a tattered old shirt and trousers, and had his head uncovered: he carried an old-fashioned gun and a large knife. The habit of carrying the knife is universal; and in traversing a thick wood it is almost necessary, on account of the creeping plants.

The frequent occurrence of murder may be partly attributed to this habit. The Brazilians are so dexterous with the knife that they can throw it to some distance with precision, and with sufficient force to cause a fatal wound. I have seen a number of little boys practising this art as a game of play, and from their skill in hitting an upright stick, they promised well for more earnest attempts. My companion, the day before, had shot two large bearded monkeys.

These animals have prehensile tails, the extremity of which, even after death, can support the whole weight of the body. One of them thus remained fast to a branch, and it was necessary to cut down a large tree to procure it. This was soon effected, and down came tree and monkey with an awful crash.

Our day's sport, besides the monkey, was confined to sundry small green parrots and a few toucans. I profited, however, by my acquaintance with the Portuguese padre, for on another occasion he gave me a fine specimen of the Yagouaroundi cat.

Every one has heard of the beauty of the scenery near Botofogo. The house in which I lived was seated close beneath the well-known mountain of the Corcovado. It has been remarked, with much truth, that abruptly conical hills are characteristic of.

Nothing can be more striking than the effect of these huge rounded masses of naked rock rising out of the most luxuriant vegetation. I was often interested by watching the clouds, which, rolling in from seaward, formed a bank just beneath the highest point of the Corcovado.

This mountain, like most others, when thus partly veiled, appeared to rise to a far prouder elevation than its real height of feet. Daniell has observed, in his meteorological essays, that a cloud sometimes appears fixed on a mountain summit, while the wind continues to blow over it.

The same phenomenon here presented a slightly different appearance. In this case the cloud was clearly seen to curl over, and rapidly pass by the summit, and yet was neither diminished nor increased in size. The sun was setting, and a gentle southerly breeze, striking against the southern side of the rock, mingled its current with the colder air above; and the vapour was thus condensed: but as the light wreaths of cloud passed over the ridge, and came within the influence of the warmer atmosphere of the northern sloping bank, they were immediately redissolved.

The climate, during the months of May and June, or the beginning of winter, was delightful. It often rained heavily, but the drying southerly winds soon again rendered the walks pleasant. One morning, in the course of six hours, 1. As this storm passed over the forests which surround the Corcovado, the sound produced by the drops pattering on the countless multitude of leaves was very remarkable, it could be heard at the distance of a quarter of a mile, and was like the rushing of a great body of water.

After the hotter days, it was delicious to sit quietly in the garden and watch the evening pass into night. Nature, in these climes, chooses her vocalists from more humble performers than in Europe. A small frog, of the genus Hyla, sits on a blade of grass about an inch above the surface of the water, and sends forth a pleasing chirp: when several are together they sing in harmony on different notes.

I had some difficulty in catching a specimen of this frog. The genus Hyla has its toes terminated by small suckers; and I found this animal could crawl up a pane of glass, when placed. Various cicadae and crickets, at the same time, keep up a ceaseless shrill cry, but which, softened by the distance, is not unpleasant.

Every evening after dark this great concert commenced; and often have I sat listening to it, until my attention has been drawn away by some curious passing insect. At these times the fireflies are seen flitting about from hedge to hedge. On a dark night the light can be seen at about two hundred paces distant. It is remarkable that in all the different kinds of glowworms, shining elaters, and various marine animals such as the crustacea, medusae, nereidae, a coralline of the genus Clytia, and Pyrosoma , which I have observed, the light has been of a well-marked green colour.

All the fireflies, which I caught here, belonged to the Lampyridae in which family the English glowworm is included , and the greater number of specimens were of Lampyris occidentalis. The flash was almost coinstantaneous in the two rings, but it was just perceptible first in the anterior one.

The shining matter was fluid and very adhesive: little spots, where the skin had been torn, continued bright with a slight scintillation, whilst the uninjured parts were obscured. When the insect was decapitated the rings remained uninterruptedly bright, but not so brilliant as before: local irritation with a needle always increased the vividness of the light. The rings in one instance retained their luminous property nearly twenty-four hours after the death of the insect.

From these facts it would appear probable, that the animal has only the power of concealing or extinguishing the light for short intervals, and that at other times the display is involuntary. I kept several of them alive for some time: their tails are very singular organs, for they act, by a well-fitted contrivance, as suckers or organs of attachment,. I am greatly indebted to Mr.

Waterhouse for his kindness in naming for me this and many other insects, and giving me much valuable assistance. I repeatedly fed them on raw meat; and I invariably observed, that every now and then the extremity of the tail was applied to the mouth, and a drop of fluid exuded on the meat, which was then in the act of being consumed.

The tail, notwithstanding so much practice, does not seem to be able to find its way to the mouth; at least the neck was always touched first, and apparently as a guide. When we were at Bahia, an elater or beetle Pyrophorus luminosus, Illig. The light in this case was also rendered more brilliant by irritation.

I amused myself one day by observing the springing powers of this insect, which have not, as it appears to me, been properly described. The same backward movement being continued, the spine, by the full action of the muscles, was bent like a spring; and the insect at this moment rested on the extremity of its head and wing-cases. The effort being suddenly relaxed, the head and thorax flew up, and in consequence, the base of the wing-cases struck the supporting surface with such force, that the insect by the reaction was jerked upwards to the height of one or two inches.

The projecting points of the thorax, and the sheath of the spine, served to steady the whole body during the spring. In the descriptions which I have read, sufficient stress does not appear to have been laid on the elasticity of the spine: so sudden a spring could not be the result of simple muscular contraction, without the aid of some mechanical contrivance. On several occasions I enjoyed some short but most pleasant excursions in the neighbouring country.

One day I went to the Botanic Garden, where many plants, well known for their great utility, might be seen growing. The leaves of the camphor, pepper, cinnamon, and clove trees were delightfully aromatic; and the bread-fruit, the jaca, and the mango, vied with each other in the magnificence of their foliage. The landscape in the neighbourhood of Bahia almost takes its character. Before seeing them, I had no idea that any trees could cast so black a shade on the ground.

Both of them bear to the evergreen vegetation of these climates the same kind of relation which laurels and hollies in England do to the lighter green of the deciduous trees. It may be observed that the houses within the tropics are surrounded by the most beautiful forms of vegetation, because many of them are at the same time most useful to man. Who can doubt that these qualities are united in the banana, the cocoa-nut, the many kinds of palm, the orange, and the bread-fruit tree?

During this day I was particularly struck with a remark of Humboldt's, who often alludes to "the thin vapour which, without changing the transparency of the air, renders its tints more harmonious, and softens its effects. The atmosphere, seen through a short space of half or three-quarters of a mile, was perfectly lucid, but at a greater distance all colours were blended into a most beautiful haze, of a pale French grey, mingled with a little blue.

The condition of the atmosphere between the morning and about noon, when the effect was most evident, had undergone little change, excepting in its dryness. In the interval, the difference between the dew point and temperature had increased from 7. On another occasion I started early and walked to the Gavia, or topsail mountain.

The air was delightfully cool and fragrant; and the drops of dew still glittered on the leaves of the large liliaceous plants, which shaded the streamlets of clear water. Sitting down on a block of granite, it was delightful to watch the various insects and birds as they flew past. The humming-bird seems particularly fond of such shady retired spots. Whenever I saw these little creatures buzzing round a flower, with their wings vibrating so rapidly as to be scarcely visible, I was reminded of the sphinx moths: their movements and habits are indeed in many respects very similar.

Following a pathway I entered a noble forest, and from a height of five or six hundred feet, one of those splendid views was presented, which are so common on every side of Rio. At this elevation the landscape attains its most brilliant tint; and every form, every shade, so completely surpasses in magnificence all that the European has ever beheld in his own country, that. The general effect frequently recalled to my mind the gayest scenery of the Opera-house or the great theatres.

I never returned from these excursions empty-handed. This day I found a specimen of a curious fungus, called Hymenophallus. Most people know the English Phallus, which in autumn taints the air with its odious smell: this, however, as the entomologist is aware, is to some of our beetles a delightful fragrance.

So was it here; for a Strongylus, attracted by the odour, alighted on the fungus as I carried it in my hand. We here see in two distant countries a similar relation between plants and insects of the same families, though the species of both are different. When man is the agent in introducing into a country a new species this relation is often broken: as one instance of this I may mention that the leaves of the cabbages and lettuces, which in England afford food to such a multitude of slugs and caterpillars, in the gardens near Rio are untouched.

During our stay at Brazil I made a large collection of insects. A few general observations on the comparative importance of the different orders may be interesting to the English entomologist. The large and brilliantly-coloured Lepidoptera bespeak the zone they inhabit, far more plainly than any other race of animals.

I allude only to the butterflies; for the moths, contrary to what might have been expected from the rankness of the vegetation, certainly appeared in much fewer numbers than in our own temperate regions. I was much surprised at the habits of Papilio feronia. This butterfly is not uncommon, and generally frequents the orange-groves.

Although a high flier, yet it very frequently alights on the trunks of trees. On these occasions its head is invariably placed downwards; and its wings are expanded in a horizontal plane, instead of being folded vertically, as is commonly the case.

This is the only butterfly which I have ever seen that uses its legs for running. Not being aware of this fact, the insect, more than once, as I cautiously approached with my forceps, shuffled on one side just as the instrument was on the point of closing, and thus escaped.

But a far more singular fact is the power which this species possesses of making a noise. Doubleday has lately described before the Entomological Society, March 3rd, a peculiar structure in the wings of this butterfly, which seems to be the means of its making its noise. He says, "It is remarkable for having a sort of drum at the base of the fore wings, between the costal nervure and the subcostal.

These two nervures, moreover, have a peculiar screw-like diaphragm or vessel in the interior. Catherine's on the coast of Brazil, a butterfly called Februa Hoffmanseggi, makes a noise, when flying away, like a rattle. The noise was continued at short intervals, and could be distinguished at about twenty yards' distance: I am certain there is no error in the observation. I was disappointed in the general aspect of the Coleoptera.

The number of minute and obscurely coloured beetles is exceedingly great. It is sufficient to disturb the composure of an entomologist's mind, to look forward to the future dimensions of a complete catalogue. Do the very numerous spiders and rapacious Hymenoptera supply the place of the carnivorous beetles?

I do not here refer to the number of different species, but to that of the individual insects; for on this it is that the most striking character in the entomology of different countries depends. The orders Orthoptera and Hemiptera are particularly numerous; as likewise is the stinging division of the Hymenoptera; the bees, perhaps, being excepted.

A person, on first entering a tropical. I may mention, as a common instance of one day's June 23rd collecting, when I was not attending particularly to the Coleoptera, that I caught sixty-eight species of that order. A small dark-coloured ant sometimes migrates in countless numbers. One day, at Bahia, my attention was drawn by observing many spiders, cockroaches, and other insects, and some lizards, rushing in the greatest agitation across a bare piece of ground.

A little way behind, every stalk and leaf was blackened by a small ant. The swarm having crossed the bare space, divided itself, and descended an old wall. By this means many insects were fairly enclosed; and the efforts which the poor little creatures made to extricate themselves from such a death were wonderful. When the ants came to the road they changed their course, and in narrow files reascended the wall. Having placed a small stone so as to intercept one of the lines, the whole body attacked it, and then immediately retired.

Shortly afterwards another body came to the charge, and again having failed to make any impression, this line of march was entirely given up. By going an inch round, the file might have avoided the stone, and this doubtless would have happened, if it had been originally there: but having been attacked, the lion-hearted little warriors scorned the idea of yielding.

These cells they stuff full of half-dead spiders and caterpillars, which they seem wonderfully to know how to sting to that degree as to leave them paralysed but alive, until their eggs are hatched; and the larvae feed on the horrid mass of powerless, half-killed victims—a sight which has been described by an enthusiastic naturalist 1 as curious and pleasing! I was much interested one day by watching a deadly contest between a Pepsis and a large spider of the genus Lycosa.

The wasp made a sudden dash at its prey, and then flew away: the spider was evidently wounded, for, trying to escape, it rolled down a little slope, but had still strength. In a Manuscript in the British Museum by Mr. Abbott, who made his observations in Georgia; see Mr.

White's paper in the Annals of Natural History , vol. Lieutenant Hutton has described a sphex with similar habits in India, in the Journal of the Asiatic Society , vol. The wasp soon returned, and seemed surprised at not immediately finding its victim. But I stopped both tyrant and prey. The number of spiders, in proportion to other insects, is here compared with England very much larger; perhaps more so than with any other division of the articulate animals.

The variety of species among the jumping spiders appears almost infinite. Every path in the forest is barricaded with the strong yellow web of a species, belonging to the same division with the Epeira clavipes of Fabricius, which was formerly said by Sloane to make, in the West Indies, webs so strong as to catch birds. A small and pretty kind of spider, with very long fore-legs, and which appears to belong to an undescribed genus, lives as a parasite on almost every one of these webs.

I suppose it is too insignificant to be noticed by the great Epeira, and is therefore allowed to prey on the minute insects, which, adhering to the lines, would otherwise be wasted. When frightened, this little spider either feigns death by extending its front legs, or suddenly drops from the web. A large Epeira of the same division with Epeira tuberculata and conica is extremely common, especially in dry situations. Its web, which is generally placed among the great leaves of the common agave, is sometimes strengthened near the centre by a pair or even four zigzag ribbons, which connect two adjoining rays.

When any large insect, as a grasshopper or wasp, is caught, the spider, by a dexterous movement, makes it revolve. Don Felix Azara vol. He adds that the wasp, in order to find the road, every now and then made "demi-tours d'environ trois palmes. The spider now examines the powerless victim, and gives the fatal bite on the hinder part of its thorax; then retreating, patiently waits till the poison has taken effect.

The virulence of this poison may be judged of from the fact that in half a minute I opened the mesh, and found a large wasp quite lifeless. This Epeira always stands with its head downwards near the centre of the web. When disturbed, it acts differently according to circumstances: if there is a thicket below, it suddenly falls down; and I have distinctly seen the thread from the spinners lengthened by the animal while yet stationary, as preparatory to its fall.

If the ground is clear beneath, the Epeira seldom falls, but moves quickly through a central passage from one to the other side. It is well known that most of the British spiders, when a large insect is caught in their webs, endeavour to cut the lines and liberate their prey, to save their nets from being entirely spoiled. I once, however, saw in a hot-house in Shropshire a large female wasp caught in the irregular web of a quite small spider; and this spider, instead of cutting the web, most perseveringly continued to entangle the body, and especially the wings, of its prey.

The wasp at first aimed in vain repeated thrusts with its sting at its little antagonist. Pitying the wasp, after allowing it to struggle for more than an hour, I killed it and put it back into the web. The spider soon returned; and an hour afterwards I was much surprised to find it with its jaws buried in the orifice through which the sting is protruded by the living wasp. I drove the spider away two or three times, but for the next twenty-four hours I always found it again sucking at the same place.

Aleffi R. Grolle R. Schumacker conf. The species as circumscribed by its author included the type of a specific epithet which ought to have been adopted under the rules. The gener- ic name was not cited as such in the synonymy of the illegitimate name. The herbarium specimen by Beccari for TOS leg.

Beccari , M. Rondinaio, per Jungermannia julacea corresponds to A. Only reported by Cortini Pedrotti sub A. The revision by R. The specimen collected by Martelli for TOS leg. Martelli , Abetone corresponds to Lophozia ventricosa. Maccagno , near Barius; leg. Gola , Baldissero Canavese corresponds to B. The report for AOS by Levier , not being confirmed by herbarium specimens, is to be con- sidered as uncertain. Bocconea 22 — 31 A revision of the genus Bazzania in Italy is thus required because there has often been confusion between B.

Schumacker in Valsesia in litt. Herbarium specimens for TOS reviewed to date all correspond to C. In fact, in the literature, under the name C. Recently, the problems in applying the name Calypogeia trichomanis L. However, in the absence of herbarium specimens, the literature reports are not useful. Owing to numerous instances of confu- sion with other Calypogeia, old data cannot be taken into consideration.

The herbarium specimen by Massalongo for PIE leg. There has been confusion among C. In some populations, usually from moist, sheltered sites, at least some of the leaves have coarsely papillose cell walls, marginal teeth and abaxial projections. Such plants have been referred to C. The reports of C. However, the species was recently found on the Island of Tavolara leg. Most recently, authors recognize C. The report of C. The conspecificity of C. Conocephalum salebrosum Szweyk.

Bocconea 22 — 33 Dumort. In some areas of Europe the new species is more common than C. Conocephalum salebrosum will certainly turn out to be more widespread in the Mediterranean area. Family, genus and species are new for Europe and Italy. The herbarium specimen by Rossetti for TOS leg. Recently, six sites of D.

The latter sites are the southernmost and highest in Europe, at ca. Later, however, Zodda attributed the lat- ter location to E. The discovery and revision of the herbarium specimen leg. The report for SAR refers to a herbarium specimen gathered by I. In fact, he says that all the reports before are not confirmed, probably because he confused it with F.

The report for FRV leg. The species is new for Italy. Fossombronia mittenii was recently found sub F. The species is new for the Italian bryological flora. The herbarium specimen for SAR leg. Zodda per F. However, recent authors recognize F. The reports of F. Fossombronia wondraczekii var. Only reported for TRA in the environs of Merano. Collected by Schiffner in and by Schwab in Schiffner, det. After a comprehensive study of abundant material including the types, F.

The reinstatement of F. They are associated with specific ecological and climatic conditions, favourable to the differentiation of these morphological vari- ants. The var. Davies or , Santa Caterina at the feet of M. Sobretta corresponds to G. Bocconea 22 — 35 In fact, this species is probably very common and has been often confused — on base-rich substrates — with J.

Leiocolea collaris Nees Schljakov is sometimes treated as a synonym of L. Thus, the literature reports of the latter must be treated with caution. Engel et R. The report for PIE leg. Probably overlooked. Buch is a species well separated from L. The specimen was correctly identified conf. For the revision of the genus Marchantia L. On the basis of this revision, M. However, many reports from Italy have been placed generically under the binomial M.

A revision of the herbarium specimens is necessary. The report by Massalongo for PIE leg. Bocconea 22 — 37 A critical taxon, which might be conspecific with M. It was distinguished from M. The reports for TOS, not being confirmed by herbarium specimens, are to be con- sidered as uncertain. Degen, det. The herbarium specimen for PIE leg.

The herbarium specimen for TOS leg. Bottini , near Seravezza, TO corresponds to Jungermannia sphaerocarpa. Canale near Collina m. The report for SAR S. In the literature, P. A sys- tematic revision of the herbarium specimens is necessary. The analyses were directed towards a reassessment of relationships between the different species and the definition of improved mor- phological character sets for discriminating the taxa.

Following this revision, P. These searches did not reveal the species again. Sengiari sulla terra o sul tronco degli alberi? Bocconea 22 — 39 A report of Riccia sorocarpa var. However, notwithstanding on-site research, the species has not been found to date, and the herbarium specimens gathered by Gams all refer to locations in Austrian and Swiss territory.

For morphological differences between R. Only reported sub R. Scapania brevicaulis Taylor has been reported from Italy by Potemkin , and this is the only report for the Mediterranean area. Because the author did not give any indication of the locality, the report should be considered doubtful until specimens can be checked. The herbarium specimen for the Island of Montecristo leg. This species is new for Italy. Recent field research failed to identify the species in this region and thus it is to be considered dubious.

Bocconea 22 — 41 Recently S. Excluded or doubtfull taxa Cephalozia lucens Evans Steph. The species does not exist in Italy; it lives only in the Hawaiian Islands. The herbarium specimen [BER] could not be found. Cephaloziella elachista Jack ex Gottsche et Rabenh. Also reported generically for Italy by Douin In addition, there is a note by Douin on the specimen, identifying it as C.

The speci- men revision by R. Cephaloziella integerrima Lindb. The reports for PIE leg. Chiloscyphus integrifolius Lehm. The species does not exist in Italy; it lives only in Peru and Chile. However, the herbari- um specimen [BER] could not be found.

However, the herbarium specimens leg. Rota, BER could not be found. Exormotheca bullosa Link ex Lindenb. For a description of the problem see note 31 regarding Exormotheca pustulosa. The species does not exist in Italy; it lives only in Java and in the Himalayas. Fimbriaria stahlii Steph. The species does not exist in Italy; it lives only in Mexico and Guatemala. Frullania teneriffae F. The herbarium speci- men corresponds to F. Gymnomitrium apiculatum Schiffn.

Nevertheless, this locali- ty is in PIE. However, the reports for PIE by Cappelletti and for LOM by Matouschek , not being confirmed by herbarium specimens, are considered as uncertain. Herbertus sendtneri Nees Lindb. Trevisan], located in Austrian territory.

Thus Zodda surely confused the Austrian toponym with the Italian one existing between Bolzano and Merano. The herbari- um specimen [BER] corresponds to Cephaloziella divaricata rev. Jungermannia caespiticia Lindenb. The report for PIE by Cappelletti refers to a herbarium specimen leg.

Gola , Piedimulera, TO corresponding with J. The herbarium specimen has not been found. The herbarium specimen [BER] corresponds to Cephaloziella sp. Jungermannia microcarpa Carringt. The herbarium specimens [BER] correspond to Cephalozia bicuspidata rev. All the specimens examined were confused with K. Lejeunea flava Sw. Nees subsp. Schuster notes the species in Central and South America and the subsp.

Probably confusion with yellow forms of L. Lejeunea patens Lindb. Following revision of the herbarium specimens, all the reports for Italy correspond to L. For the distinction between L. Lepidozia cupressina Sw. The report for FRV Monte Cretabianca by Gortani , not being confirmed by herbarium specimens, is to be considered as uncertain. Leptoscyphus cuneifolius Hook. Marco in Val Brembana, sub Jungermannia cuneifolia.

The herbarium specimen [BER] corresponds to Cephalozia bicuspidata rev. Lophozia elongata Steph. Bryhn by Levier , corresponds to L. Metzgeria temperata Kuwah. Reported by Levier for AOS leg. Vaccari, Piccolo S. Bernardo, det.

Bryhn, sub Alicularia geoscypha De Not. Bocconea 22 — 45 Phaeoceros carolinianus Michx. Plagiochila spinulosa Dicks. In Italy only P. Pleurozia purpurea Lindb. Porella canariensis F. In fact, it is P. Porella platyphylloidea Schwein. The report for SAR leg. Prasanthus suecicus Gottsche Lindb.

These local- ities are in French territory. The species has not been found in Italy to date. Radula aquilegia Hook. The herbarium specimen [BER] corresponds to R. Riccia melitensis C. Reported incorrectly by various authors for SIC. Telaranea nematodes Gott. Weber Lindb. Corda var. Roth Warnst. Howe S. Nees var. Buch, A. Weber Isov. Weber A. Mohr Schiffn. Evans Steph. Mohr Dumort. Mohr H. Weber Warnst. Howe M.

Grolle subsp. Jack ex Lindb. Weber Steph. Only reported [sub Phascum bulbosum var. Only reported near Cagliari De Notaris The report by Sauter concerning its occurrence in TRA is considered uncer- tain, as the herbarium specimen has not yet been found. The report by Brizi is very vague, as he mentions the occurrence of this species in the mountain areas of the Lazio Region without referring to any precise locality.

The report by Brizi b refers to a fossil found among the marls in a boggy stra- tum about 9 m below the Tiber River at Ripetta. Cortini Prado m a. Velluti, det. The report of its occurrence [sub Drepanium pratense Koch Roth. Only reported [sub B. Currently, Olyoak is conducting molecular studies personal communication that in the near future will imply the transfer of a number of species of the Bryum genus to the Ptychostomum and Imbribryum genera.

Many reports of species belonging to the B. For this reason, the report for PIE should be excluded. As follow-up to the work of taxonomic revision conducted by Holyoak , it is necessary to review the herbarium samples of B. Only reported by Lo Giudice in Contrada Arcia m a. Only reported in Guspini Cagliari on wet rocks Giacomini a. Bocconea 22 — Only reported by Lo Giudice near Vena, M. Only reported on moist sandlands, close to the permanent snow cover of the Azzarini and Pisgana mountains De Notaris However, in the absence of any herbari- um specimen, the taxonomic identification is unreliable by reference to the previ- ously mentioned site conditions, which do not match the ecological preferences of this species.

Only reported [sub C. Formerly considered as a synonym of Campylium calcareum Cortini Pedrotti , it is now indicated as a distinct species. After the revision of all herbarium specimens, the known distribution of this species will be modified. Zodda Only reported by Lindberg on the banks of the Arno River, near Pisa. Only reported by Trautmann on the Italian side of the Stelvio Pass.

European specimens identified as Fissidens exiguus are poorly limbate forms of either F. A systematic revision of the herbarium specimens is necessary. The report for TOS by Pellegrini is considered uncertain because the only existing herbarium specimen does not correspond to this species. Only reported [sub F. Paul is considered uncer- tain because the herbarium specimen is not sporified. Only reported in Veny Valley M. The report of its occurrence [sub H.

Only reported at Pic Ciadin Kern Only generically reported [sub Leskea subenervis] by Garovaglio Only reported [sub O. Geltrude on car- bonatic rocks. Described by Massari as O. Only reported by Brusa in litt. Only reported in three localities of the Belluno Province between and m a.

Only reported [sub P. The report, not being confirmed by herbarium specimens, is considered uncertain. Only reported by Bottini at Campello-Monti. Ponte Pietra , lacking confirmation by herbarium specimens, is considered uncertain. Based on the taxonomic revision of the S. Bibliographic data previous to this date and not confirmed by revision of the herbarium specimens, are considered uncertain.

Only reported by Molendo in Livinallongo on the Padon Mountain, at m a. Only reported near Molina Ledro Lake between and m a. Only reported on the dolomitic cliffs of the Sobretta Mountain in the Valley of Alpe, at about m a. Giacomini The record of S. Andrus, which is seemingly the only taxon of the S. However, Afonina pers. They are therefore omitted. Sphagnum brevifolium and S. In typical morphological appearance they are well separated from S.

Their species status can there- fore be questioned, and more genetic data are required before a decisive taxonomic conclusion can be drawn. Sphagnum tenerum Sull. European plants labelled S. Only reported at Terme del Brennero about m a. Only reported at Bosco della Ficuzza, about 10 km south from Marineo Blockeel, The report for LOM M.

The reports for TOS, not being confirmed by herbarium specimens, are considered uncertain. Only reported by Blockeel on the vertical walls along the Vizzini- Caltagirone road. Only reported [sub Systegium multicapsularis] by Geheeb on Giannutri Island. Its occurrence is still uncertain, as Bottini could not validate the species iden- tification because of the poor state of the herbarium specimen Tanfani The report for TOS Apuania province by Pellegrini , lacking confirmation by herbarium specimens, is considered uncertain.

Formerly assigned to excluded taxa Cortini Pedrotti , the occurrence of this taxon near Chiavenna has been recently confirmed by Cortini Pedrotti who performed a revision of the specimen collected by Pfeffer in [RO]. Holmen The report of its occurrence [sub Cinclidium hymenophyllum] near the Gran Ghiacciaio in the Forno Valley Lombardia by Venturi must be considered erroneous, as the author took this information from Limpricht who had reported this species in the Forno Valley from Switzerland.

Pelekium minutulum Hedw. Touw The report of its occurrence on the Rocciacotello Mountain in PIE by Filipello [sub Thuidium minutulum] cannot be confirmed because of the poor state of the herbarium record. The report of Bryum sphagni by Rota on the Lombardian side of the Tonale Pass De Notaris is erroneously assigned to Pohlia sphagnicola: Bryum sphagni correspond, in fact, to Bryum weigelii.

Nordhorn-Richter , corresponds to Pohlia nutans. The report of its occurrence [sub Grimmia maritima] in Lazio by Brizi is not reli- able because it is not supported by a herbarium specimen. In addition, the distribution area of this species is limited to north-western Europe Bremer and its presence in the central Apennines seems for the moment to be unlikely.

Schistidium strictum Turner Loeske ex Martensson All the reports concerning the occurrence of Schistidium gracile synonym of S. Vesicularia galerulata Duby Broth. Therefore, no species of Vesicularia are listed for Italy by Cortini Pedrotti It seems likely that V. Synonyms of Mosses Acaulon carniolicum Web. Funch ex Hornsch. Milde nom. C Hartm. Mohr Kindb. Sande Lac. Bruch hom. Spruce hom. Grout hom. Loeske nom. Louis Code. Lawton ex H.

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Arrigoni, P. Artaria, F. Milano Avena, G. Rome Avetta, C. Baiocco, M. XVI: Balbis, G. Turin Reale Accad. Torino Balderi, F. III contributo. Nuovo reper- to di Woodsia alpina Bolton S. Serie B, Balsamo Crivelli, G. Balsamo, G. Ciro Pollini. Centuria I. Milan Centuria II. Parte I. Paris 2: Bamberger, G. Banfi, E. Barberis, G. Barbey, W. Bargagli, P. Barkman, J. Baroni, E. Naturalista Naturalista , Bartalini, B. Baudoin, R.

Studio Briogeografico. Palermo, maggio : Bellardi, L. Turin 5: Belli, S. Rome 6: Bellomaria, B. Gregorio di Camerino Marche. Beni, C. Bergdolt, E. Berini, G. Berner, L. Bernet, H. Berta, A. Bertarelli, L. Bertolani Marchetti, D. Lineamenti paleobotanici dei depositi quaternari della Val Vigezzo. Reperti di Abies a tipo orientale. Bertoloni, A. Decas tertia. In: Amoenitates italicae sistentes opuscula ad rem herbariam et zoologiam Italiae spectantia.

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Caccianiga, M. Camoletto, R. Bartramiaceae in Sicilia. Camus, F. France CXV. Caniglia, G. Michele Vecchio. Veneziana Sci.

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