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Ponte…nas ondas! Association has been working since towards the documentation, gathering and recognition of several manifestations of the GPIH Galician-Portuguese Intangible Heritage. This work was always carried out in direct contact with the communities bearing the said heritage. These groups collaborated in many of the Association's activities in order to revitalize this heritage and convey it to the younger generations.
During the elaboration of the proposal for the Candidature of the Galician-Portuguese Intangible Cultural Heritage, which began in , the Association contacted the representative communities of the GPIH in both Galicia and the north of Portugal. These communities were representative of the heritage's fields featured in the Candidature: the oral tradition's popular literature, the oral tradition of rural and fishing areas, the artisanal knowledge and the celebrations throughout the year.
The written consent and the Candidature's documentation were submitted together. In all of the GPIH's fields, the bearing communities and gathering groups of this heritage in Galicia and North of Portugal collaborated with the Association, thus providing equipment and performing conveying activities in formal learning as well as in public events.
Once the Candidature was presented before the UNESCO in , and as it was being assessed by the international jury, communities and bearers performed activities to spread the common heritage throughout the Galicia-North of Portugal Euroregion. Due to its territorial involvement and the number of involved communities, we wish to highlight the role of the Galician Federation for Maritime and Fluvial Culture Galician initials: FGCMF , which groups together with important bonds the maritime communities of the Galician and Portuguese coastline that protect the manifestations of the Galician-Portuguese maritime culture.
Connected concerns for the achievement of this goal are the preservation of the environment, the fostering of sustainable development, and the support to children education and traditional leaders' capacity building. In this manner Teje Teje contributes in the safeguarding of tangible and intangible cultural heritage, the implementation of formal, informal and non-formal education processes. As a consequence, it cares for the individual and collective cultural growth of the communities as well as for the preservation of the environment.
Its work is focused in the restauration of traditional knowledge and production in land production, environmental management, sacred and ritual centers, gastronomy, healing, spirituality, artifact, looking at these various elements of individual and collective life with an holistic approach.
Indirectly: 2. Products: 1 Cultural cartography document that includes maps and inventory of sacred sites and medicinal plants. Workshops with the Zenu indigenous population on their intangible cultural heritage , Cordoba and Sucre Beneficiaries: Directly: people that assisted to the workshops. Indirectly: Historic, anthropologic and environmental research based on qualitative and quantitative methods , Magdalena and Cesar Beneficiaries: 2.
Products: Document: Cultural Characterization of territorial affections of the Ette Ennaka People for land restitution process. Travels around the sacred sites of the Black Line boundaries of the ancestral Arhuaco, Wiwa, Kogi and Kankuamo territory with the indigenous shamans for cultural strengthening , , , Magdalena, Cesar Guajira, and Atlantico Beneficiaries: Products: Documentary films: "Pagamento: Ritual Territory", "Ritual and Thought" distributed in indigenous schools for culture strengthening.
Compliling of Ette Ennaka's oral tradition on territory and settlement with the elders, for cultural strengthening , Magdalena Beneficiaries: 2. Itinerant Exhibition that shows the Ette Ennaka's history of their travels and settlement in ancestral territory , Magdalena Beneficiaries: 2.
Products: 6 photography panels 1x2 Mt. Construction of the Nara Kajmanta's school kitchen and dining room with a traditional design and economic support for the Ette Taara's languaje teacher , Santa Marta Beneficiaries: Directly: 60 Ette Ennaka Children. Indirectly: people. Products: Kitchen, dining room, Ette Taara lessons guaranteed. Recuperation and construction of traditional home orchards Kaaria for food sustainability and cultural strengthening and , Magdalena and Cesar Beneficiaries: families.
Products: Traditional Home Orchards. Workshops on traditional: weaving, handcrafts, music, dance, ethno medicine and self-government for the Ette Ennaka indigenous communities. Result: recovery of material culture. Advisory to the women weavers of the following indigenous communities: Wayuu, Arhuaco, Kogi and Kankuamo, on issues such as traditional design, quality and marketing. Beneficiaries: 10 women weavers.
Result: Recovery of traditional designs and improvement of their income. December Iguana Magazine, "Chimila women and children preserve their ancestral culture". Teje Teje seeks to preserve indigenous cultures". December Iguana Magazine, «Compromised with tradition of the Chimila Indigenous population" December January Gesti6n Social Caribe Caribbean Social Management Magazine,"Recovery and strengthening of traditional and cultural practices associated to the Ette Ennaka familiar and sustainable food production".
In addition, Teje Teje promoted the creation of the Ette Ennakas Women Weavers Association in which today provides indigenous women with incomes to help support their families. In and - Teje Teje worked in alliance with the Ette Ennakas "Cabildo" Authorities in the strengthening of their traditional practices associated to food production, political organization, and cultural heritage around issues such as weaving and handcrafts, music, dance, ethno medicine and self-government, benefitting families.
Since early , Teje Teje has worked in association with the Ministry of Culture, with the accredited NGO to the Convention, Traditions for Tomorrow, and with the Ette Ennaka "cabildo" on a project that aims tore vitalize its cultural identity considering the conservation of sacred sites, knowledge of medicinal plants and the word of the elders. With the Zenu Indigenous population, Teje Teje is currently working with the indigenous authorities to encourage the creation of a group of people committee that will manage cultural heritage based on the Special Safeguards Plan of the cultural expression "Handcrafts as the heart of Zenu Identity".
This program prepares grants a scholarships especially for this programmed for M. Participants are young lecturers from various universities around Indonesia. After completing their studies are expected to return home to teach at various universities This program also to train and prepare a number of scholars for research and fieldwork on endangered languages and cultural activities in different areas all over Indonesia.
Primarily it is necessary to conduct a general survey to understand the present situation of intangible cultural heritage in Indonesia, and to plan a strategy of protecting the most endangered species. Nevertheless, we have to express our gratitude to the researchers and resource persons who helped ATL in designing and carrying out our revitalization and accompanying programs i. Hamidi, M. Hum Jakarta , Dr. Tabir Sitepu Medan , Prof. Suripan Sadi Hutomo Surabaya , Dr.
Aminuddin Malang , Prof. Mursal Esten Padang Panjang. In addition, we would like to express our most sincere gratitude to cultural experts and artists, such as the late B. It is linked to European Carnival festivities, has important components of popular satire, festive sociability, artistic expression, artisan practices and singular techniques. It is also felt by the community involved as an importart signal of its identity.
Likewise, are also an important objective for the association to publicize and promote the heritage aspects of the festivities related to the use and rituals of fire, promote the research related to them and create opportunities for reflecting on the importance of heritage management in popular festivals. Without being exhaustive, we highlight the following activities: Identification, documentation, research: Call and organization for Jaume I Congress on Popular Cultures and Fire Festivals Congreso Jaume I de Cultura Popular i Festes del Foc, The inventory and reasoned catalogue of Fallas Museum of Valencia, especially characterized by its unique collection and intangible cultural practices linked to it Issue of the Revista d'Estudis Fallers since annual scientific journal that publishes original research papers about Fallas Festivals and other celebrations of fire.
Journal meets the scientific standards at the reception and approval of articles. Design and implementation in of the Center for Documentation of Fallas festival with the City Council of Valencia for the collection of written, audiovisual and intangible documentation catalogue and archive for the free access and consult of researchers.
Ephimeral Heritage on the European Carnival Rituals carnval. Promotion and improvement: Organization of "Les falles a la Nau" discussion sessions, since in collaboration with University of Valencia, where different agents involved in the Festival come together to reflect on interesting issues, especially on heritage, promotion, protection and enhancement.
Since the association awards the best article of reflection and disclosure of Fallas festival: The Enric Soler i Godes Award. Organization ot the Mostra de Llibrets de la Comunitat Valenciana to promote the Llibrets de falla, native publications edited by fallas comittes, to implement synergies between the different agents implied and to work in the consolidation of this cultural field.
Transmission and formal or non-formal education: Organization, in collaboration with the Secretary of Tourism of the Generalitat Valenciana regional government , of several editions of a training course on the Fallas festival and its intangible cultural heritage for official tour guides. Realization of different divulgation talks and lectures on the history of the Fallas festival in collaboration with festive and cultural associations.
Participation in seminars and scientific meetings offering unpublished works on social and heritage importance of the different elements of the festival. Revitalization: Retrieval and update, in collaboration with the Valencia City Council, of ancient festive events like "Cavalcada del foc" a parade of fireworks that connects with the festive tradition of mediterranean fire and had ceased to be held in The association is made up of sociologists, linguists, journalists, cultural managers, museum and tourism management professionals, art historians and artisans and artists, all of them with a personal and professional involvement with the cultural heritage.
Thus, it is established as a multidisciplinary group working together on different projects of research and enhancement of the cultural aspects of festival. In addition to the specific training of each of the members, a continuous exchange of information that allows to extend the knowledge of the other members, so that skills and competeces in the field of cultural heritage immaterial are exponentially increased. Valencia City Council in the inventory and cataloguing of the Fallas Museum, in the design and implementation of the Documentation Centre of the Fallas festival and the recovery of missing festive events.
Generalitat Valenciana regional government , in the design and realization of exhibitions on intangible cultural values linked to the festive literature. Junta Central Fallera local festive committee in works for developing new measures to promote cultural heritage linked to fire festivals. Gremio Artesano de Artistas Falleros de Valencia, in the catalogue and enhancement of the Museum of the Fallas Artists and in the restoration of some of its pieces.
Le tout est produit en trois langues minimum: fran9ais, anglais et espagnol. Leurs auteurs sont souvent des universitaires. Evaluation Body mandates: Evaluation Body mandates: ; ; ; ; Case of extreme urgency Article Besides, according to the item 4 the Cireolo carries out its work and initiatives not only in Scapoli's area but also out of it with the aim to favour the exchange and the cooperation between communities and territories.
For that, many and various activities have been carried out, involving not only the zampogna makers and players but the whole community. Besides all the other good results in terms of preservation, promotion and revitalization, the project let the Circolo to take the first census of the cultural heritage connected with the zampogna, to collect materials and documents for the Italian centre of the Bagpipe, to realize a transnational cooperation project called "Common Sounds to the European Rural World" in cooperation with the Local Action Group "North Pennines" Northumber1ad, UK and above all to reinforce the link between the community and its heritage.
About the competence and the expertise in the domain of intangible cultural heritage, the personnel and the membership consist in: traditional zampogna makers and players, ethnomusicologists, anthropologists, musicians and musical groups, cultural associations, museums, libraries, researchers, scholars, university teachers, besides simple enthusiasts.
Since its foundation joined the Association several zampogna makers and players that, both as group and individuals, are those who traditionally create, maintain and transmit this kind of heritage. Besides, most of the activities have been carried out wit the involvement and the participation of the whole community, from its younger to the older members. At this regard, a very important and successful role has been played by the LEADER project "Living with the bagpipe" with which it has been possible to reinforce the relationship between people and their cultural heritage.
Particularly significant is also the annuallntemational Bagpipe Festival in which. The festival is organized in collaboration with the Commune and with the local turistic association. There are also involved all the economic and trade activities of the area, people give their help in the organization of the event, place rooms for visitors and musicians, sell gastronomic specialities, etc. In each edition of the Festival the musicians involved, traditional and not, come from all over Italy and each time from 2, 3 or more foreign countries.
The event is very well attended around Every year, on the occasion of the Assembly of the members, the Circolo organizes also 2 "Bagpipers Meetings", in Spring an in Autumn, in which the participants analyse what has been done and propose what could better to do in terms of safeguard, research, transmission and promoting of the zampogna tradition. It aims to safeguard and revitalize puppet traditions and the related craftsmanship, as well as local practices and productions in their different territorial, artistic and traditional expressions so as to save and expand the rich immaterial heritage connected to Sicilian folk traditions and to encourage the research focusing on their relation with their original context.
This activity takes place by means of collecting; research; promotion; networking and cooperation; educational, didactic and theatrical activities, eg. Since the beginning they have undertaken important researches about local traditions and material culture collecting important testimony and recording, among others, religious festivals, puppet shows, interviews to puppeteers and traditional spectators.
Also, to safeguard the Opera dei pupi, the Association started to collect lots of items used to put on traditional shows creating the first core of the collection, which was to be exhibited at the Museo internazionale delle marionette International Puppet Museum , founded in its collections include ab. It encourages the intercultural dialogue by adopting an interdisciplinary approach and proposing programmes, which have always promoted an exchange between folk and cultivated theatre, art and music in relation to the field of performing arts, heritage and culture.
In its latest five editions, it involved more than artists www. This stable collaboration has allowed the organization of ab. Meetings with art and traditional music , held in various Sicilian towns and in collaboration with CIDIM Italian National Committee for Music , which included performances of local story-singers concerning some famous stories of the poetico-musical repertoire.
Performed according to the traditional executive techniques and staging codes; cunti, which are serialized stories publicly related by wandering storytellers and concerning chivalric epics stemmed from the ancient French Chansons de geste; concerts of folk songs; seminars about the Opera dei pupi and Unesco masterpieces of the oral and intangible heritage of humanity held in Palermo.
This stable collaboration aims to increase their activity and expectations within a constant exchange and dialogue, which are at the basis of the important research activity carried on by the founding members of the Association. In addition, in order to revive, promote and popularize it, since the opening of the Museum, the Association organized an annual review of the Opera dei pupi and during the year it still schedules Sicilian puppet shows by inviting companies from all over Sicily and involving them in other didactic activities.
Not only does the Association mediates in the relationship between puppeteers and national and international spectators and institutions, but it also creates contacts and cooperation with craftsmen, puppeteers and artists from other countries promoting the cultural and professional exchange between Sicilian traditional artists and foreigners operating in the same field. In fact, during the annual Festival di Morgana, the Association often invites companies from abroad, which perform or hold workshops in Palermo, and it has also promoted the production of innovative performances mixing traditional practices ex.
Chinese Opera and Sicilian Opera dei pupi , or various forms of art contemporary dance, paintings and music : the result was the creation of artistic works which plays with the Opera dei pupi traditional codes which gave Sicilian artists the possibility to become more aware about their activity and to expand the range of their experience in the puppet field.
Finally, this exchange has helped the development of a more general comparative study of traditional theatrical practices. The "Battuglia di Pastellessa" are ornamental wagons that are prepared to celebrate the religious feast of Saint Anthony, the Abbot, in January following a tradition that started years ago in Macerata Campania. Membership to the Association is free, without any kind of discrimination with regard to race, citizenship, sex or religious belief.
Other Associations, Committees, Institutions and Foundations, sharinq the same purposes of the Association, can apply for membership to the Association. During such event the Association coordinates about 1. During the previous days concerts, tastings and religious liturgies warm up the atmosphere.
The feast consists in: firing the "Cippo di Sant'Antuono" Saint Anthony's piece of wood , parade of the ornamental wagons of the "Battuglia di Pastellessa", fireworks and a raffle. The band exhibition of the "bottari" is in the morning when they are carried on 16 meter-long wagons, with their instruments consisting of vats, barrels and sickles, realized by local artisans, around the town.
After the Mass fireworks are exploded as symbol of the purification and the struggle against the evil spirit. Figurative fireworks representing a woman, a pig, a donkey, enrich the symbolism and represent the protective force from the snares of the world. Traditional games as tug of war, the sack race and the raffle, when all donations collected during the procession are auctioned, mark the closure of the festivities.
The event is organized by the Association with the sponsorship of the Municipality of Macerata Campania, the Province of Caserta, with the Campania Region, and the participation of the "Comitato per la promozione del patrimonio immateriale". Dissemination Project Sant'Antuono Web 2. The Association's Web community puts together more than 1. The event was organized by the Association with the sponsorship of the Municipality of Macerata Campania.
The event was organized by Association with the sponsorship of the Municipality of Macerata Campania. The event was co-organized by the "Comitato Carnevale di Montemarano" and the "Comitato per la promozione del patrimonio immateriale ICHNet " with the sponsorship of the "Istituto Centrale per la Demoetnoantropologia" of the Italian Ministry of Culture. Establishment of the Study Centre "Historia Loci" in order to fulfil safeguarding activities for the intangible cultural heritage of Macerata Campania through research, studies, and events.
Young people are invited to join in the practice of playing the various typical musical instruments used while elder people participate in the transmission of techniques and patterns of playing and singing. The about 1. In order to fulfil the safeguarding activities for the intangible cultural heritage of Macerata Campania, the Association collaborates with other Associations, Committees, Institutions and Foundations, of the territory such as the "Associazione Radici" of Marcianise, the "Comitato Carnevale di Montemarano" of Montemarano, the Province of Caserta, the Municipality of Macerata Campania.
In order to strenghthen the knowledge of its local tradition and specific percussion techniques, it also collaborates with organizations from other parts of Italy including the "Comitato per la promozione del patrimonio immateriale ICHNet - Intangible Cultural Heritage Network " and the "Istituto Centrale per la Demoetnoantropologia" of the Italian Ministry of Culture.
The Union helps to learn and form the public opinion about carpet-making art, legal rug products, and it also helps the stimulating of the raising of the creative work mastery of the physical persons, popularization of quality and special signs of our national culture and handicrafts to determine various examples of carpets and also helps theirs popularization and demonstation in Azerbaijan and the world. The NGO collaborates with local and international organizations of carpet-making art, including museums and also with legal and physical persons, as well as the state agencies.
The Unity organizes different trainings and workshops, round tables and meetings, exhibitions, charitable fundraising, conferences, other cultural and other mass measures; dissiminates information about purposes and activities, publishes print materials. For preservation of a variety of the Azerbaijan carpet, weaver's communities together with the Association «The World of carpet» and Azerbaijani Carpetmakers' Union collect information about local features of carpets, popularisation of products of local weavers through exhibitions-sales, organising trainings.
So, in August , in Baku, the Azerbaijani Carpetmakers' Union uniting all carpet communities of the country and the Association «World of Carpet» organised the round table which was devoted to problems of activization of manufacture of pileless carpets in Azerbaijan. The Carpetmakers' Union organises regular trainings in technique of pileless carpets at the the Museum of the Azerbaijan carpet. Communities of carpet weavers demonstrate the works at various exhibitions. So, in the national competition-festival of carpets in various zones of the country was organised.
In , works of national weavers were shown in one of the Days of the Azerbaijan culture in Basel. Besides, the following national laws were adopted: in the Law on import-export of cultural objects, in - the Law about folklore, in - ratification of the Convention of UNESCO on Protection of intangible Cultural heritage. In , , and , three international symposiums of the Azerbaijan carpet were organised in Azerbaijan. In 4th symposium devoted to the anniversary of Ljatif Kerimov took place in UNESCO headquarters in Paris where the exhibition of artists works also was organised.
Among large publications of carpet protection for last decade: Roya Tagieva «The Azerbaijan carpet» , presentation of which has taken place in in Louvre Museum, Azadi-Kerimov-Tsollinger «The Azerbaijan Caucasian carpets» , and the two-volume book «The Azerbaijan carpet» , devoted to L. Kerimov and Materials of 4th symposium about the Azerbaijan carpet. Many last projects have been connected with efforts on revival of carpet art.
In 14th of September, has been spent the round table and a master class "Not varying values of varying time" with the assistance of carpet — wavers, artists on carpets, collectors and businessmen, and also fans of carpet art. It has been shown a collection of clothes with use of carpet patterns of young designer Minary Kulieva, works of the master on embroidery art with use of a carpet thread of Shahla Askerova, etc. On 17th of November, , on the day of birth of the great artist on carpets, masters, scientific Ljatif Kerimov has been opened the exhibition of professionals and masters is national-applied art "The art Bridge, the leader from the past in the future".
On 18th of May, has opened the exhibition of tapestries "Tapestries: yesterday and today", where have exposed the works of masters of Non-governmental organisation. On 10th of May, has been opened the exhibition of the Union's member Mr. In March, has been opened the exhibition of masters on national-applied art was devoted to a holiday of Novruz.
Since the Carpetmakers' Union has started to carry on negotiations with similar international communities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, in Russian Federations and in Islamic Republic of Iran. Result of negotiations was the opening of an exhibition of masters of people-applied art of Uzbekistan which has been opened together with "Fund-Forum of culture and art of Uzbekistan", Associations of Antiquaries of Uzbekistan "Meros" which will proceed in the autumn opening of an exhibition of the Azerbaijan masters in Tashkent, also opening of an exhibition of carpets on the basis of pictures of the National artist of Azerbaijan and Russia Tahir Salahov.
In this way the Union supports to enrich cultural variety, protect non-material cultural heritage especially among young generation. It carries out monitorings for the learning cause and effect in the material and technical direction, prepare the activity program in the direction of restoration of the technologies defining on the basis of getting results of the sensible and forgotten kinds of the carpet-making art.
In in Guba, Khachmaz, Gusar, Shabran, Siyazan the Union carried out the survey about modern situation of the carpet-making art, in in the result of analysis of the surveys compile the plan of monitoring and in Guba unity have been organized the exhibition from the works of the carpet-makers and masters of applied art.
In there were surveys about carpet-making art in the west zone of Azerbaijan. The same problem is connect with various kinds of art embroideries. It is about the propaganda the ancient kinds and names of embroideries art among the young generation. Once in a month the Union organize the meetings with craftsmans in the various handicrafts of people-applied art and investigate their problems. Carrying out the work among different adults , the Union learns their interests to various kinds of applied art and organize different groups.
Educational activities: At the museum but also in schools. We are holding courses for youths and adults who want to learn, and also have two university courses at the museum together with the Gotland University. Festival: Since , every year we have had a storytelling festival, which is local, national and international. At the festival we host a Nordic youth camp for the next generation of storytellers.
We are trying to highlight different kind of storytelling traditions, we highlight the romany tradition. This has been done by; road signs, maps, story cabinets at the actual place the cabinets consist of a story that the visitor can read in Swedish, English or German, a painting which is connected to the story , an app you can listen to the story in your phone instead of reading if you like geocaching, performances, activities and excursions.
Every summer we do a summer program in The Land of Legends, with performances open for the public. Performing arts: Storytelling is a performing art, we do plenty storytelling from stages, at theathers and festivals. Book publishing: Several books have been published with the old tales but also with the new stories that we have collected today.
Minority groups — we have highlighted storytelling traditions belonging to groups that unfortunately have been overlooked in history, for example Romany and Sami. Together we have done many projects, and helped them at several places to highlight their legends and stories connected to places where they operate. NGO for traditional handicraft — connected to the making of handicraft are several stories and tales. We work together with the traditional handicraft association to bring forward these stories.
We co-operate around storytelling, doing performances at the museums. Main objectives of the Organization: 1. Rediscovery and promotion of the intellectual and traditional knowledge of the Igbos relating to its traditional medical knowledge and practices; 2. Protection of the masquerade and oracular prophetic practices of the Igbos, Wawa people as they extend in Nigeria, Ghana, Cote d'lvoire and Senegal; 3.
Defense and sustenance of the natural and customary practices of the indigenous African people under the context of foreign religion and globalization which exterminate the population's social and economic existence; 4. Sensitization of the intellectual class in Africa on the issues that border on African intellectual property and folklore; 5. Research and publications on African intellectual and folklore history and issues by collating end reports of conferences and workshops.
Poverty reduction programs to ensure environmental and economic sustainability for the Wawas in 19boland spread through the four West African states; 7. Designing relevant programs that will impact positively and contextualize the millennium development goals in the lives and customs of the Wawas in 19boland, especially those in tension soaked Niger delta of Nigeria.
Poverty reduction programs to ensure environmental and economic sustainability for the Wawas in Igboland spread through the four West African states; 7. Designing relevant programs that will impact positively and contextualize the millennium development goals in the lives and customs of the Wawas in Igboland, especially those in tension soaked Niger delta of Nigeria. We have embarked upon documentation and profiling of the intellectual properties and folklore of the Wawa people of West Africa with a view to seeking legislative and copyright protection of these activities, previously undocumented; 2.
Publication of well researched articles and books on Wawa indigenous people that will itemize the various cultural properties and rights of the people to sensitize the world and national governments on the areas which are threatened with distinction.
Organizing workshops and attending global fora of world indigenous peoples to present the perceived areas of injustice and marginalization which have threatened them with extinction and permanent dislocation in the geography of their present locations in West Africa.
Collaboration with all other individuals and organizations which promote and defend the intellectual property and folklore of indigenous people worldwide with a view to exchanging information and visits from other parts of the world; 5. Making representation to governments in the four West African countries to recognize and adopt best practices and conventions on world indigenous intellectual rights and properties.
Policy advocacy on curriculum change, legal reform and cultural promotion of the intellectual property of the Wawas and Igbos in West Africa. Materials gathered by CTMD staff, folklorists, ethnomusicologists and community cultural sepcialists are the basis for subsequent articistic presentations and educational programming. The collection includes audio and video recordings, photographic documentation and related ephemera on CTMD's presentations and programs.
A monthly eNewsletter provides news, events and informatin about NY's traditional music and dance scene. While CCIs are deeply grassroots and NY-based, they produce ripples that can extend nationally and even internationally. In the s, CTMD's project to document and present Jewish klezmer music helped spark a workd-wide revival.
In the s, CTMD helped form the renowned all-women's ensemble Cherish the Ladies which ispired huge interest amongs women across North America ane even Ireland in performing Irish music previsously a male-dominated activity. Il met sur pied des expositions en lien avec ses collections.
La mission du Centre touche les volets de la recherche, de la conservation et de la formation, de la diffusion et de la mise en valeur du patrimoine vivant. However, from it increased her activities to encompass the conservation of both movable, immovable and intangible heritage assets.
CHDA is mandated to Organize, co-ordinate and develop viable projects and activities for heritage and museum development in Africa, such as the post-graduate diploma course in the care and management of heritage and museum collections in sub-Saharan Africa, in collaboration with the University of Nairobi and University College London, and the Africa program.
In many programs, CHDA invites expert resource persons and also teaching assistants, who use the opportunity to understudy the expert trainer on their way to becoming expert trainers in their own right. These professionals, many of who went on and acquired further qualifications, became part of the CHDA network of heritage professionals, a pool of experts that CHDA draws on for its professional training needs, as resource persons, facilitators and program coordinators in case of need.
It is important to note that the network has experts in most of the different aspects of heritage management, including tangible, intangible, movable and immovable heritage. They also have loyalty and commitment to CHDA, having come through it in the development of their professional careers. A few of the programs CHDA has undertaken in the past and which had a direct bearing on intangible heritage management included: 1. Endangered Heritage Assets Program EHAP This program was undertaken by CHDA in successfully sought to identify, document and disseminate the tangible and intangible cultural heritage of the Mijikenda people of the Kenyan coast, especially those that are threatened with extinction.
The three-year en-compass project The project began in October and is on-going. It brought together participants from China, England, Guyana, and Kenya with the remit for Anglophone Africa The program looked at issues related to the dangers and challenges faced in the protection of intangible and tangible cultural heritage in all participating countries. The program activities also included a workshop to scope and audit key tangible and intangible heritage resources, including cultural expressions, products and services in each partner country.
These in-country workshops provided a focus and momentum for long-term on-going scoping and auditing activities post training. However, the information and material gathered through the scoping exercise was also fed onto a database, used to create the online and published catalogues- this process is still on-going. The project also intends to create an inventory of cultural heritage resources Tangible and Intangible , including those at risk in the short-term from the scoping exercise undertaken in each of the three partner countries.
The catalogue of cultural heritage assets both tangible and intangible collected will be researched and used to design and develop a travelling exhibition that will go around all the participating countries. This course had a whole unit dedicated to "Indigenous knowledge systems and community involvement", which is basically training in intangible heritage of communities. Africa Courses CHDA hosted the 3-month Africa courses for , , , , and One of the issues Africa program addressed was the issue of insufficient human resources and capacity for management, conservation, and maintenance of immovable heritage properties on the continent, using traditional methods and materials.
This means that traditional methods, knowledge and skills, which are basically intangible heritage assets, were being mainstreamed in the program, in a participatory approach involving local communities in the conservation planning and management processes.
For example, the field projects aimed to establish self-confidence within the local custodians and to enhance their recognition as efficient professionals. The project also worked to integrate traditional techniques in conservation of monuments resulting not only in monuments that are responsive to local environments, but also to the sustenance and promotion of traditional skills - the intangible heritage within the local communities.
The aims of the course was to produce professionals who can record Intangible Heritage appropriately and to enable trainees effectively apply methodologies, standards, and equipment for recording Intangible Heritage. The main course objective was to enable participants to record Intangible Heritage using digital and video cameras in line with laid down standards and procedures as provided in the course.
For this matter, community participation has always been incorporated into the programs CHDA offers its participants - either by making it part of the teaching learning content or by inviting community members as participants in training programs to exchange issues with professionals, learn from and teach them and to create networks for future exchange. In the last training that CHDA held in Zimbabwe on Risk Preparedness for Heritage properties between 6th and 18th May for example, two community members were invited as participants to help build an understanding among professionals on the traditional approaches to risk management of the Great Zimbabwe, as well as to help us understand the community needs and expectations from the professionals in their professional work of management and conservation.
Evaluation Body mandates: ; ; The roots of the CSC lie in an extensive research programme Katholieke Universtiteit Leuven on the history and the current situation of traditional games in Flanders the Dutch speaking part of Belgium , started by prof. R Renson in The unexpected richness and variety of traditional games lead to the foundation of the CSC in order to promote this endangered sporting heritage and to get people acquainted again with the traditional games.
The mission of the CSC states that the CSC must be a centre of expertise in safeguarding the intangible heritage of the traditional and modern movement culture in vivo and in situ via identification, documentation, research, protection, handing down, revitalizing … on a national and international level. Gradually the CSC broadened its scope to a European and even a worldwide scale.
On a European level the CSC carried out a lot of demonstrations of traditional games abroad and invited traditional games practitioners from many countries to Belgium for demonstrations and exchanges. The activities worldwide concern mainly research, publications, the gathering of documentation and exchange of information.
From onwards, the CSC committed itself, together with Sportmuseum Vlaanderen Sports Museum Flanders to realise the Sportimonium-project, a museum about the sports history of Flanders in its national and international context. Especially as traditional games are concerned, both the tangible artefacts and intangible loan service, games park —see further aspect of the sporting heritage is taken into account.
For enquiries the centre calls upon the traditional sports federations for collaboration. Documentation centre and library open to the general public - ca. This collection has been handed over to the Sportimonium in In this museum one of the sections is entirely dedicated to traditional games worldwide.
Therefore the visitors can get acquainted with the skills of a variety of traditional games which are still practised locally in Flanders. As the future teachers and sport administrators they are invited to the Sportimonium in order to sensitize them and to get them acquainted with traditional games. Counselling and support - supporting festivals organized by the traditional games players - helping clubs, federation and their individual members in research matters - counselling associations or federations for candidatures for the Belgian list of elements of intangible heritage - participation in governmental assessment committees cultural matters - collaboration with Unesco project on traditional games , platform for traditional games worldwide The staff of the CSC has almost 30 years experience in safeguarding traditional games.
The staff members 3 have university degrees and have followed in the course of years many courses related to the safeguarding of intangible heritage. The CSC is in close contact with other organisations in the country taking care of popular culture in order to exchange experience. The same goes for engagement in the international network of the European Association for Traditional Sports and Games, of which the CSC has been among the pioneers.
Due to these constant contacts, on the one hand with the practitioners of traditional games and at the other hand with professionals working in the fields of culture, sport and tourism the personnel of the CSC has acquainted its competences.
The CSC has been instrumental in helping the clubs to get in contact with each other and to found if appropriate federations of their own. This resulted in in the foundation of a confederation for traditional games Vlaamse Traditionele Sporten vzw, VlaS with the CSC as one of the founding members.
This confederation grew steadily from to The CSC is member of the board of directors of VlaS and vice versa, firstly in order to be well informed about each other activities and initiatives, secondly to collaborate where appropriate. While constructing the traditional games park, there has been close cooperation with practitioners in testing and adapting the facilities in full respect with the games while using — if possible - modern materials.
One of the CSC objectives is to make the bearers of the intangible heritage, i. This must lead to an enhanced self-consciousness towards heritage in order to hand it down and to defend it. Important for the CSC remains, furthermore, exchange and collaboration with other organisations experienced in the domain of popular culture and in safeguarding intangible heritage.
Evaluation Body mandates: ; ; ; ; At the National reviews our jury of specialists meets more than collectives, evaluates their qualities and their art. The Section communicates with those groups as to organize participation for them in different Festivals and Folklore events all over the world. We assist concerts and presentations of those ensembles.
For better communication with all those collectives from different parts in Bulgaria the section collaborates with 24 choreographers who are responsible for particular regions of the country. Meetings with those coordinators are organized frequently and any needed and important information is given to them.
More than choreographers from the country take part in the annually organized seminars of the choreographers in Bulgaria. At those events are discussed different problems related with the folklore and its popularization. In many of our activities we co-operate with the Ministry of Culture, with the Union of the cultural clubs in Bulgaria, and with different organizations working in the cultural domain. During the organization of the Festivals in Sofia and Veliko Tarnovo we co-operate with a lot of people who have experience in the folklore sphere in order to choose groups of a great quality fot the Festivals and to present them our traditions in best way.
It benefits from the cross-disciplinary exchange of its members — architects, archaeologists, art historians, engineers, historians, planners, who foster improved heritage conservation standards and techniques for all forms of cultural properties: buildings, historic towns, cultural landscapes, archaeological sites, sites having intangible values, etc. It also runs 28 specialised International Scientific Committees on a variety of subjects.
One of these is the International Committee on Intangible Cultural Heritage which, within the mandate of ICOMOS as an organisation concerned with the conservation of monuments and sites, specialises in the protection of sites that have intangible values and in so doing the conservation of the intangible that gives value to certain monuments and sites. ICOMOS has six principal objectives: To bring together conservation specialists from around the world and serve as a forum for professional dialogue and exchange; To collect, evaluate and diffuse information on conservation principles, techniques and policies; To co-operate with national and international authorities on the establishment of documentation centres specialising in conservation; To work for the adoption and implementation of international conventions on the conservation and enhancement of architectural heritage; To participate in the organisation of training programs for conservation specialists on a world wide scale; To put the expertise of qualified professionals and specialists at the service of the international community.
ICOMOS members, who are specialists in the management of sites with intangible cultural heritage associations, were part of their national delegations in the drafting process of the ICH Convention. The core business of ICOMOS is the conservation of monuments and sites and the development of standards of professional practice and networks. Our focus is how appropriate and adequate protection of sites can strengthen intangible heritage practices; and how intangible values such as traditional knowledge systems, crafts and practices contribute to the sustainability of cultural places and landscapes.
Key activities in this area: Debate around ICH and its associations with monuments and sites. ICH features strongly in regards to the strengthening of traditional practices and the benefits for sustainability and indigenous practices associated with cultural landscapes. Development of national and international standards of professional intangible cultural heritage practice in relation to sites and landscapes.
The establishment of a network of specialists in ICH values. Members are actively involved in research and documentation activities under the Convention; they share expertise and activate to promote the convention. UK, Australia and Mexico.
Our members actively participate in national and international conferences and publish extensively on this subject through scholarly books and peer reviewed journals. Perpetuation and transmission of the ICH aspects of a site. Strengthening of ICH practices. Identification of conservation measures needed on a site to ensure continuation of associated cultural practices Recognition and strengthening of traditional land management systems as a means of conserving a site and associated ICH practices.
Training of community members in conventional heritage conservation practice, tourism management, etc. ICOMOS members routinely work with issues associated with community heritage and international standards and governance systems for conservation of heritage, both tangible and intangible.
Tsenka Ivanova and Dr. Svetlozar Vlaykov - Intern. Svetlozar Vlaykov — Intern. Les festivals invitent et font la promotion des peuples minoritaires et autochtones. Le CQPV dispense de plus des formations professionnelles relatives aux arts traditionnels. Des cahiers de stage sont ensuite produits pour les participants. Assistance technique aux Administrations. Projets pilotes.
Promotion et diffusion des informations relatives au Patrimoine Gastronomique traditionnel, y compris site web en construction. The CCCC was created in and its main purposes, as stablished in its by-laws, are: Promote human towers and its values, spread its knowledge, and to stimulate research on the topic, while looking after its good image and safeguarding. Manage and defend the affiliates' common interests and goods. CCCC is currently in charge to hire insurance policies for all the 'colles'.
Represent the human towers collective before the administrations, media, etc. Promote good practices on human towers, especially on safety. Promote good understanding among its affiliates. As you can see, the organization's first aim deals directly with the safeguarding of this cultural intangible heritage element. The first one www.
The second one www. Both websites also explain what the Intangible Heritage Convention from Unesco is. Documentation: The www. New data is added each weekend, as new performances take place. Catalan Human Towers", whose aim is to sanction official products and goods which give part of its profits to the "colles castelleres". Promotion: The CCCC has developed several actions aimed to promote human towers among concrete collectives, such as immigrant population or children through schools.
The last of these actions is an activity that promotes both human towers and reading through libraries. The first one is dedicated to safety and technical issues regarding human towers. The second one deals with legal, financial and organizational matters. The CCCC has also been responsible to develop several studies that have allowed human towers to become a safer activity, including the development of a special helmet used by children climbing on the towers.
Revitalization: As a federation that gathers all the "colles", the CCCC also works as a forum where all the different groups can debate and decide jointly the future path for the element. Revitalization: The CCCC offers help to new "colles" when they are born, while at the same time checking that these new groups respect the human towers tradition and established values.
Preservation, protection and revitalization: The CCCC boosted in the document titled "The Social Values of Human Towers", approved by all members, in which the "colles" ratified their compromise with values such as amateurism, a sustainable and responsible management, inner pluralism and democratic functioning.
Most of these actions can be checked through our websites. This means that it is made up of groups that work the intangible cultural heritage. Again, as stated before, the board of directors itself is made up of intangible cultural heritage practitioners. At the same time, it is alas important to acknowledge that CCCC works democratically. Key decisions have to be taken by the General Assembly, where every group is represented.
The board of directors is also voted by the General Assembly. All this means that the organization's tradition is to build consensus and negotiate between its members to find a position where everyone or at least a huge majority feels comfortable.
Although safeguarding intangible cultural heritage is not CRIA's primary objective, a majority of its researchers working mostly, but not only, within two thematic lines: "Culture: Practices, Politics, Displays" and "Power, Knowledge, Mediations" deal directly or indirectly with this issue. They explore it from a theoretical and analytical standpoint, and they resort to it as a framework for applied research and for intervention on the field.
Their ethnographic activity provides the empirical basis and the cultural knowledge that are necessary for an objective assessment of the relevance, interest, urgency, viability and sustainability of safeguarding initiatives. Additional information: CRIA contributes in direct and indirect ways to safeguard Intangible Cultural Heritage lCH through the activities of its researchers, namely through: Theoretical and reflexive examinations of the notion of ICH, thus contributing to its conceptual understanding and elucidation.
The organization of conferences and public lectures which allow for the diffusion of this knowledge to society in general and particularly to cultural agents and mediators. A woman called Leni Riefenstahl, who just died in at age , when she was a young woman did a propaganda film for Hitler. Hitler, like Mussolini, believed in high tech. He was one of the first people to use the radio. Franklin Roosevelt used the fireside chat of the radio. But Mussolini was already there piling falsehood upon falsehood, and Italians who could barely afford to eat all had their radios.
The same thing happened in Germany as well. She did a movie, a documentary called Triumph of the Will, about Nuremburg. It is truly chilling. It's amazing, it looks like a political convention or something in some ways. All of these movies you can see in the privacy of your luxurious suites in Branford or Pierson College or wherever, because they're available now in ways I don't even understand, but on your Internet.
We used to actually show them here. It was four hours long. People described it as a two six-pack movie. The janitors complained because there were so many beer bottles rattling around. But, of course, this was before the drinking age was raised.
So, of course, I don't show that movie. I take that back. I don't take that back, but what the hell. Anyway, I don't show that movie anymore. But I do show Triumph of the Will, and you can watch that at home. The other one is Au revoir les enfants. Because one of the last lectures I talk about resistance and collaboration in Europe, and because I live in France much of the time, I talk about France.
Au revoir les enfants, Goodbye Children, some of you have probably seen. It was made by Louis Malle, who just died a couple of years ago. It was about when he was in college, so he was the equivalent of 7th and 8th grade. He's a boy who hadn't been there before. He's a Jewish boy. It's about his friendship with this boy, and what happens. At the end, it's not a happy film, but it's a great, great film. What else? What to say? There's a midterm. I don't like to waste a lecture giving a midterm.
I would rather give a lecture, but we have to have something to report to you. If you tube it, if you don't do very well at all, we don't count it as much as if you do well. People ask these questions, I know. How much is it worth? Geez, there's more to life than grades, but it's something like twenty-five percent and the paper is twenty-five percent.
Section participation is ten percent, whatever we work out, then the final. It's an exercise in seeing how you're doing. It really is no big deal, but it will help you pull the themes of the course together. It's no scary situation.
I'll tell you, a couple of years ago I ran into this student. I said, "Hi, how are you? It wasn't that, "Hi, how are you? A- or A," but whatever. You have to take the midterm. That's the way they run it here. That's not my idea, so that's what we're going to do. Okay, now I'm going to talk about some of the themes.
At the end, I'm going to read you a poem. I started history in a serious way because I read this poem. So, I'll leave that until the end of it. I didn't got to Yale. I went to the University of Michigan, maize and blue forever, very sad since last weekend.
I came from Portland, Oregon. I don't know if any of you come from Portland, Oregon, but that's where I'm from. When I went off to Michigan, I'd been at a Jesuit high school. Jesuit high school was a sports factory, in part, but it was a very good school, but it was very repressive. I went off to the University of Michigan after having been in Jesuit school for four years. It was wine, women, and song. There weren't enough in the middle and probably too much of the first.
My first semester I got a 1. I'm serious. I had an F. I shouldn't laugh at myself. My kids say, "Oh, my god, not the same story again. The people I hung around with in Ann Arbor were so unaccomplished, some of them anyway, that they thought I was smart because I got a B. I'd go by in the dining room and they'd say, "He got a B.
Can you imagine that? Some of the people that I hung around with were amazing. You may even know people like that, but I don't think so. But one of the guys that I knew, I've got to get back to the topic in a minute, but I just thought of this, was sort of the king of malapropisms.
One day he was going on and on. These are the people I hung around with. He was going on and on about this good meal that he had of one course after another, and it was fantastic. It was a really good restaurant, and somebody snuck him some wine. Finally, I'm tired of the whole thing and I said, "Was it gratis? But I've taught here a long time and I stand by maize and blue, but I love Yale. One of the things I love about Yale is being able to teach people like you.
And I mean it, and I love this course, so I hope that you will enjoy it, if indeed you take it. What about some of the themes? What kind of stuff are we going to do? Could you get some syllabi for some of those folks back there? They're up on the thing. Thanks a lot. A couple of themes. I don't believe, and I've never believed, that history is a series of bins. I guess I wrote that in the book, but that you open up and you say, "Well, there goes the Enlightenment.
Shut that baby down. Then the French Revolution, "Oh, I know all about that now. To do a course like this where you're going to learn much of what is important to know about western civilization, I do believe, if you do the reading and stuff, and if you enjoy the lectures, there have to be some threads that go all the way through that make it worth it so you learn something.
One is certainly state-making. Even if you take a sort of federalized, decentralized state like with this very bizarre electoral system like the United States, that the growth of modern states, it doesn't really just come in the twentieth century with the welfare state beginning in England, and even before that in some other places, insurance programs and things like that.
It begins with the consolidation of state power in the late Middle Ages with territorial monarchies, the Spanish, and the French, and the English monarchies. It has a lot to do with the growth of absolute rule. That's what I'm going to talk about next time, absolute rule, absolutism.
The growth of standing armies, huge standing armies, never seen before, of big forts built on frontiers. It has a lot to do with bureaucrats who could extract resources from ordinary people. A lot of the rich didn't pay anything or hardly anything at all.
It has to do with an allegiance, a dynastic allegiance that could be transferred later to a nation, the idea of nation. That starts in the eighteenth century. It doesn't start in the nineteenth century. It starts in the eighteenth century, at least in Britain.
That's an argument that we'll make also. In , which is kind of when that book gets rolling--they only start in about there were about different territorial units in Europe. Some were no bigger than Archbishop's Garden in Germany, and some were larger states--not yet what they are now in terms of size, such as France, which expanded under Louis XIV into Alsace and Lorraine, and various other places.
But there's about territorial units. In , there were thirty. So, the consolidation of state power, which is looking at it from the state out, or the emergence of an identity where you see yourself as German as opposed to Bavarian, French as opposed to Gascon or Provencal, Spanish as opposed to Castilian or as opposed to Catalan.
The Catalan language was illegal until , until Francisco Franco finally croaked in , in November. This is a great phrase; I wish I'd said it originally. I don't know who said it, but someone once said that a language is a dialect with a powerful army. That's it. That's true. France at the time of the French Revolution, half the people in France knew French. There was bilingualism. You could know Catalan. You could know Auvergnat patois. We live in the south of France where a lot of old people still speak a patois, though that's mostly dying out.
How does it come that identity, a sense of allegiance to a state or a country? Not everybody, but how does it come to when people go marching off to get killed singing the Marseillaise, the French national anthem, in pretty good French? How does that happen? How does a state increase its reach? How is the modern world created?
We call this process, it's a clumsy word, but state-making. How do states form? The other side of this is how do identities change? In the sixteenth century, seventeenth century, ask somebody they were. Say, "Who are you? I'm of this family. I'm Jewish. I live in a mir village in Russia. A lot of them died in fields thinking, "only if the czar only knew that we were starving, and that his ministers were treating us bad, how angry he would be.
They didn't know that the czar could have given one damn. But the allegiance to the czar, the sense of being Russian or being dominated by the Russian czar, is something that had to be constructed. So, the state constructs its ability to extract taxes, extract bodies for national armies, also to provide resources, but identities are transformed. So, I give this as an example, because state-making is one of the themes that kind of ties everything together.
This course ends in , but look at the problems in the post-communist world of state-making. Look what's going on in Georgia, which is more complicated than the newspapers present in very many ways. Look at the horror show of the Balkans in the s. A lot of the issues, religious hatreds that we thought only would be limited to Northern Ireland. That's another theme that's very important to the whole thing. Another, of course, is economic change. Obviously, this is not a course in economic history, but the rise of capitalism, that's what it's called, capitalism or large-scale industrialization.
It changes in ways that we'll suggest in the reading, and then I'll talk about a little bit, the way people live in very fundamental ways. There's lot of continuities, but there's lots of big changes. Everybody doesn't end up in the assembly lines right away. There are other ways of rural production. Women's work remains terribly, terribly important. I'll spend some time doing that. A very dear friend of mine, my mentor indeed, Chuck Tilley, who just died a couple months ago, to my great sadness, once said that "it's bitter hard to write the history of remainders.
I'll do one lecture when I talk about popular protest. I'll take three examples of people rebelling. I stand back and say, "What does this mean? What is going on here? You're not responsible for that name, would never be. But where suddenly men dressed as women carrying guns, or carrying pitchforks, came down out of the mists, out of the snow and drove away charcoal burners and drove away forest guards.
Because they'd lost access to glean, to pasture their miserable animals. Because the wealthy, big surprise, got the law on their side as the price of wood goes up. They didn't walk around saying, "Well, I'm a remainder. Eventually, I'm going to have to move to Toulouse and my great-great-grandchildren will work in the Aero Spatial, in the air industry there. Then I take an example from the south of England, from the same time, , , when they find people dead with only dandelions in their stomach, dead of hunger.
Then these people start marching the poor, the wretched poor. Rural laborers start marching and threatening people with threshing machines. Why threshing machines? Because threshing machines were taking away their work as harvesters. And one day they found a sign that said, "Revenge from thee is on the wing from thy determined Captain Swing," suggesting that they were many.
They were righteous. They were just. They were armed. They were ready. Did Captain Swing exist? Of course not. They were weak and they get lost. They get defeated. Some of them are hung. Lots of them are sent to Tasmania to the prison at Port Arthur, Tasmania. They're sent to Australia. That's why when the Australians play the English, a lot of the Australians sing that old Beatles' song, "Yellow Submarine," which you don't remember, which I vaguely remember.
Captain Swing, they lost, but they went down fighting. It's bitter hard to write the history of remainders. But when you look up from that and you say, "Look what's going on here. But it tells you a lot of what's going on over the big picture.
That's another one. Then there is, I'll just take one more, maybe another ten minutes. I'm going to read you my poem. Then you can go. But I hope you come back. War--war as a dynamic of change. Warfare changes with Napoleon. There were already changes in the eighteenth century, but it's still basically professional armies or people getting conscripted in the British navy, because they were drunk at the wrong place at the wrong time outside of a tavern in Portsmouth or something.
The next thing they know, they're throwing up on a ship bobbing off toward the English empire. But warfare changes with the nation's state. There's this magic moment where the artisans of Paris defeat the highly-professionalized army at a windmill called Valmy in the east of France. It changes the way things were. Napoleon is arguably the first total war, because of a war against civilians where there are no longer the traditional limits between fighting against civilians and fighting against armies.
Those limits hadn't existed in the Thirty Years' War. I'll talk a little bit about that next time around. But the wars are very different. There's famous Goya paintings of peasants being gunned down by French soldiers, and atrocities against peasants in Calabria in the south of Italy. So, warfare really changes, but it becomes a dynamic of change. If you think about the Russian Revolution of , the Russian Revolution was not inconceivable without World War I, but it was sort of inconceivable without the Russian Revolution of , and the defeat by the Japanese in an extraordinary shocking event, at least for Europeans in and And World War I provides opportunities for dissidents in Russia to put forward their claims.
So, when the whole thing collapses on the czar's head in February , and the Bolsheviks come to power, the war itself was a dynamic of change as well. And what a war. What wars. There have been nothing ever like it. A few journalists who had been in the Russo-Japanese war had seen trenches in Manchuria that had been built.
But nobody could have imagined that the war that was supposed to be over in six weeks was going to destroy four empires--the Ottoman empire, the Austro-Hungarian empire, the German empire, and the Russian empire, and, arguably, we can talk about this and we can debate this, the British empire. Because lots of people who had fought in India, Indians who had fought in the war, or people now we would call Pakistanis who'd fought in the war, or people from Kenya who'd fought in the war are no longer going to be satisfied with simply arguing that they're part of the great empire, even though they have hardly any rights and no money, and simply work for the big guy.
So, the war transforms Europe by destroying these empires. What it also does, and it's very possible to argue this, and my friend, Jay Winter, who is a great expert on World War I, and Bruno Cabanes also, who's on leave this year, would agree with this. You could see the whole period in as a new and more terrible Thirty Years' War. Only between and is it not a big industrial depression.
The poisoning of the political atmosphere--I'm going to do a whole lecture on Hitler and the national socialists. World War I created Hitler. He was already just this pathetic guy with grandiose plans, no friends, and sort of a sad sack going to the theatre and droning on and on about all he knew about Wager, whom he loved, and the theatre, and in a threadbare coat. But World War I transforms him into an anti-Semite. He was already an anti-socialist.
It transforms him into an anti-Semite. The troops that came back, many of them simply kept on marching. They'd survived the war and they kept on marching. The poisoning in the political atmosphere was something that was simply extraordinary. To understand fascism, this is terribly, terribly important, you have to understand what happens in World War I. Great expectations dashed the Treaty of Versailles, which only the great British thinker, John Maynard Keynes, really got right, predicting the disaster that came out of it.
There's no more fascinating period in history, in my mind. It's absolutely fantastic. What a war. It's all obvious. Everybody's seen these films from Imperial War Museum -- which has been kind of wrecked the way they've done it now, it's sort of too high-tech -- in London. But I leave you with just a couple thoughts. The Battle of the Somme in that started on July 1st when they blow the whistle and say, "Over the top, guys.
In three days. Where are the great British leaders of the s and the s? They're all dead. They're hung up on that old barbed wire, as one of the war poets put it. They're hung up on that old barbed wire. One guy, a soccer player, said, "We'll get some enthusiasm. He doesn't make it. He's killed. In on Christmas Day, the Germans and the British soldiers, some would say, "Enough of this stuff" for the day. They sing to each other. They actually play soccer; they play football.
In , a British soldier said, "Let's do the same thing. The horror of the war transforms Europe, every aspect of Europe. It's impossible to understand the growth of the agrarian sort of semi-fascist regimes in Eastern Europe, very much under Nazi influence, without understanding World War I. The war that was supposed to end all wars; of course, it doesn't do that at all.
That's a big stop on our agenda as well. We did used to read All Quiet in the Western Front, but everybody's read that. That was pretty long, so we don't do that. But we will try to rock. Let me just read you my poem and then you can go. Well, you can do whatever you want, but anyway. I remember this. I remember reading this poem back at University of Michigan at on a Saturday, trying to figure out what I'd done the night before.
But, anyway, no. This is Brecht, the great East German poet. It's called "A Worker Reads History. Hitler is obviously not a great man. He's awful, just awful. But the people who are thought to have made history: Napoleon, Peter the Great, other people. I do talk about the folks that you read about in textbooks, including mine.
But I ask the same question and pose to you the same question that Brecht poses. It's a short poem, so just hang on. Who built the seven gates of Thebes? The books are filled with the names of kings. Was it kings who hauled the craggy blocks of stone? And Babylon so many times destroyed. Who built the city up each time? In which of Lima's houses, The city glittering with gold, lived those who built it? In the evening when the Chinese wall was finished Where did the masons go?
Imperial Rome Is full of arcs of triumph. Who reared them up? Over whom Did the Caesars triumph? Byzantium lives in song. Were all her dwellings palaces? And even in Atlantis of the legend The night the sea rushed in, The drowning men still bellowed for their slaves. Young Alexander conquered India. He alone? Caesar beat the Gauls. Was there not even a cook in his army? Philip of Spain wept as his fleet Was sunk and destroyed.
Were there no other tears? Frederick the Great triumphed in the Seven Years' War. Who triumphed with him? Each page a victory. At whose expense the victory ball? Every ten years a great man. Who paid the piper?
So many particulars. So many questions. If you hang with us this semester, we'll get at some of those. See you. Thank you. The rise of absolutism in Europe must be understood in the context of insecurity attending the religious wars of the first half of the seventeenth century, and the Thirty Years' War in particular. Faced with the unprecedented brutality and devastation of these conflicts, European nobles and landowners were increasingly willing to surrender their independence to the authority of a single, all-powerful monarch in return for guaranteed protection.
Among the consequences of this consolidation of state power were the formation of large standing armies and bureaucratic systems, the curtailment of municipal privileges, and the birth of international law. Reading assignment: Merriman, John. Transcript September 8, Professor John Merriman: So, what I want to do today--again, this is a parallel holding pattern lecture. I'm going to talk about absolute rule. This parallels what you're reading. It's just to make clear, with some emphasis, about the importance of the development of absolute rule.
Now, one of the points I made last week, for those of you who were here, is that one of the themes that ties European history together is the growth of the modern state, of state-making. This tends to be an awkward expression or term that is used by historians.
If you look at the way states are in Europe now, whether they be relatively decentralized, such as Great Britain, or extraordinarily centralized, as my France, the origins of the modern state must, in part, be seen in this kind of remarkable period of European history from the early seventeenth century through the middle of the eighteenth century. Now, we have a process in late Medieval Europe of the consolidation of territorial monarchies.
You did have monarchies like Spain, England, and France, namely. Those were the three most important ones, in which rulers consolidated to brush claimants to power aside and consolidated their rule. But the period of absolute rule really begins in the mid-seventeenth century, and is to be found in those states that had specific kinds of social structures.
This is a point we'll come back to, particularly when we're talking about the two most important states, two of the great powers of the period that did not have absolute rule. And which, in the case of England, the civil war was largely fought, to a great extent anyway, trying to prevent the English monarchy from taking on characteristics of those emerging absolute states on the continent.
So, between and , and this is right out of what you're reading, the rulers of continental Europe, of the biggest states, extended their power. And, so, there were two aspects of this. One is they extend their ability to extract resources out of their own populations; and, second, they work to increase their dynastic holdings at the expense of their neighbors munching smaller states, or by marriages, or by wars against their big rivals.
One of the most interesting examples of that is the Thirty Years' War, which starts before this course and ends before this course or with the beginning of this course, , which I'm going to come back to a little bit in a while--they say while it begins as a religious war between Protestants and Catholics, it ends up being a dynastic struggle between two Catholic powers consolidating their authority over their own peoples, and expanding their dynastic domains, thus Austria and France.
That's an important point, because it tells you what really is the big picture that is going to emerge. So, when we're talking about the growth of absolute rule, we're talking about France, that is, the Sun King; Prussia, particularly Frederick the Great about whom you can read; Russia, Peter the Great, about whom I will have something to say in a week or two, I don't know when; Austria, aforementioned; and Sweden. Sweden kind of disappears from the great power state when they're defeated by Peter the Great in--when is it?
Now, what did it mean to be an absolute ruler? What it meant was that in principle, your power was greater than any challenge that could come from those underlings, those craven reptiles in your imagination over whom you ruled. But there's a balance to it that I'll discuss in a while. There really can't be a challenge to them from the state itself.
So, they make their personal or dynastic rule absolute, based on loyalty to them as individuals and not to the state as some sort of abstraction. Of course, one of the interesting things that we'll hear about in a couple days is the fact that British national identity, which is formed precociously early in European history, arguably in the seventeenth century and for elites perhaps even before, has this sort of constitutional balance between the rights of parliament, victorious in the English Civil War, and loyalty to the monarchy.
So, absolute rulers assert their right to make laws, to proclaim or to announce laws with the waive of their chubby hands, to levy taxes and to appoint officials who will carry out their will. So, it's possible to talk about the bureaucratization of medieval states if you want, but when you look at the long-range growth of bureaucracies as part of government, as part of state formation, that's why the growth of these bureaucracies is one of the characteristics of these absolute states in all of these big-time powers.
So, what they do is--well, let me give you a couple of examples. One thing absolute monarchs don't want is they don't want impediments to their personal rule. What was a kind of impediment to their personal rule? One would be the municipal privileges. There are all sorts of states.
Some are more powerful than others. But Germany is not unified until Avila is one of the most fantastic fortified towns in Europe. Or, if you go to Nimes in the south of France, you'll see boulevards that people race motorcycles around all the time and they keep you up all night. There are no walls there anymore, because the king had them knocked down.
So, what happens with municipal privileges, towns that had municipal privileges, these are eroded and then virtually eliminated by powerful potentates. So, municipal privileges--walls were put up for a variety of reasons around towns. Plague, for example. Dubrovnik, one of my favorite cities in Europe.
Dubrovnik had these magnificent walls you could walk all the way around. They have a quarantine house where they would put people who were travelers arriving there, because walls kept out plagues. Walls keep out malfaiteurs--evil doers. They keep out bandits and things like that. The doors literally slam shut at night. There was a case of a very minor insurrection in an obscure Italian city in where the people of the town literally locked the ruler out of the town--and Italy remains decentralized.
The tradition of these decentralized city-states that were the heart of the Renaissance. Italy is not unified--to the extent it has ever been unified--until the s and s. What these kings do, these kings and queens is they get rid of these impediments to their authority. Even take the word burgher or bourgeois.
Bourgeois is a French word. It's more of a cultural sense, but it also has a class sense. A bourgeois or a burgher was somebody who lived in a city and assumed that some of the justice that was levied against him or her would be the result of decisions taken locally. Now, big-time, powerful absolute monarchs don't want that.
So, part of the whole process is the elimination of these municipal privileges and replacing municipal officials, to make a long story short, with people that they have appointed. They eliminate--the one privilege above all that the big guys want to get rid of is the right to not be taxed. Part of being an absolute ruler is being able to levy taxes against those people who have the joy or the extreme misfortune of living in those domains, and more about that later.
So, what happens with all this is that absolute rule impinges directly on the lives of ordinary people more than kingly, or queenly, or princely, or archbishiply power had intruded on the lives of ordinary people before that. So, these rulers have a coercive ability in creating, and I'll come back to this, large standing armies that will be arriving not immediately, they're not arriving by train or being helicoptered in at some distant command, but they will get there if there's trouble.
They will arrive and they will get there and they will enforce the will of the monarch. We'll see the statistics are really just fascinating about how big these armies become. The argument that I'm going to make, drawing upon again Rabb--he's not the only one that's made this argument, but he's made it more thoroughly than most people--absolutism may be seen as an attempt to reassert public order and coercive state authority after this period of utter turmoil.
The English Civil War, the Thirty Years' War, in which in parts of central Europe a quarter of the population disappeared, were killed, murdered in ways that I will unfortunately show you in a while. Is it peasants who are come and assert the rights of the poor against us? Think of all the insurrections or all the people who followed false czars to utter slaughter in Russia.
The nobles say, "All right. We agree to be junior partners in absolute rule in exchange for recognizing your supreme authority over us in exchange for the protection that you will afford us. The armies of the state, as you will see in a while, are growing, and moreover, "you, oh big guy, you will assert our own privileges.
You will recognize our privileges as nobles. But in absolute states, there's no doubt who rules and who helps rule. So, in absolute states big noble families are very happy to send their offspring to become commanders in the army and navy, where they never do a damn thing, or to become big bishops like Talleyrand, and to profit from the state while recognizing that the big guy, the king and the queen, have absolute authority over them.
Now, the classic case, of course, Louis XIV you can read about. Louis XIV when he was a kid, he was about twelve or thirteen years old, he lived in Paris. He lived in the Tuileries palace along the Seine, which was burned in during the commune. A fronde was a kind of a slingshot that Paris street urchins used to shoot fancy people with rocks as they rode their carriages through the muddy streets of Paris.
It's a noble insurrection against royal authority, and in Auvergne in central France you have people rising up against their lords saying, "Hell with you. We're not going to pay anymore. It scares the hell out of him. At one time they burst into his bedroom and he's a little guy. When royal authority conquers these rebels, the frondeurs--you don't have to remember any of that, F-R-O-N-D-E, it's good cocktail party conversation, or something like that, but it's important--he makes them, literally, he's a bigger guy then, they literally come and they bow down, and they swear allegiance to him in exchange for protection and the recognition of their privileges as nobles, as titled nobles.
That's really the defining moment in absolute rule. What does Louis XIV do? He goes out and builds Versailles. He only goes back to Paris I think three times ever. He doesn't like Paris. Versailles is only eighteen kilometers away. It's about eleven or twelve miles away. The women of Paris in October, many of them will walk to Versailles to bring the king back to Paris. After that, he's essentially, well to put it kind of ridiculously, toast, French toast, when that happens.
He builds this big--I call it a noble theme park, basically, at Versailles. The most interesting is Vaux-le-Vicomte, which is southeast of Paris. It's a big sort of sprawling--gardens everywhere. Ten thousand nobles lived there. How boring! But the point was that they could be watched, that they're not going to--they can chase each other's wives and mistresses around, and they can eat big drunken meals.
The wine would freeze on the way from the kitchen through--it is sad--to the big dining hall. But he has 10, of these dudes and dudesses there that he's going to watch over. They can conspire against each other, and they can hit on each other's wives and mistresses. He could give one damn. But he can control them there. He only goes back to Paris three times ever. Napoleon thought the natural frontier was the Pacific Ocean.
That would be another story. So, this is what, in a nutshell, kind of what absolutism was. But let me say two things now, after having said that. There were doctrines. You can read about this stuff--geez, it's obvious. But there were doctrines of absolutism that originated with jurists early. This was out there. There was a theoretical conceptual framework for having a king or queen having absolute powers. Even the development of this theory of absolute rule is in response to the rise of these territorial states like Spain, and France, and Russia later.
France is a good example. He says, "Seeing that nothing upon earth is greater or higher next unto God than the majesty of kings and sovereign princes," he wrote in Six Books of the Republic, "the principal point of sovereign majesty and absolute power was to consist principally in giving laws, dictating laws, onto the subjects in general without their consent.
But there's a theoretical framework, and it will catch up with the French monarchs, among others, later--that the ruler must be a father, a benevolent figure. As I said, in some context last time, how many Russian peasants died in the s thinking, "Oh my god, if the czar only knew that we're starving, how angry he would be with his officials.
But this was the image, that the big person is there to protect you, and that his glory is your glory. But along with this conceptual framework, provided by none other than Thomas Hobbs in England, who had lived through the English Civil War and thought that you shouldn't mess around with this rights business, you need some sort of big powerful monarch there--but there was a sense inherent in all of this.
And that even conceptually, theoretically, if the monarch goes too far against the weight of the past that there is inherent in this the idea that he or she might well go. Of course, you can imagine the thoughts of Louis XVI as they were cutting back his hair to await the fall of the guillotine on the 21st of January, In the cabarets and the estaminets, the bars of Paris of which there are many, many, many--happily so--in , when ordinary people are drinking to the Third Estate, and talking about despotism, and finding examples from what they saw around them as representing despotic behavior.
That line had clearly been crossed and helps explain why it was that in a country in which there weren't ten people who wanted a republic in It was possible to imagine life without a king. Imagine that. So, that's there as well. Now, let's characterize--oh, geez. Let's characterize absolute rule. Now, you did have, in many of these countries, diets, or parliaments, or some representative bodies.
Again, the king doesn't have to call them. In the case of France again, since we're talking so much about Louis XIV, they call the Estates General, which is to represent all the provinces after the assassination of Henry IV in or Appropriately enough, he was stabbed to death in a traffic jam in Paris when his carriage gets blocked in the center of Paris, and this mad monk sticks a big knife into him.
So, they call the Estates General then, but the king never calls it again until So, you have these diets and you have these parliaments, but one of the characteristics of absolute rule is that you don't have to call these bodies, because the king is the big person.
Now, in the case of England, one of the causes of the English Civil War is the refusal of the kings to pay any attention, to recognize the rights of parliament that people in the British imaginaire, in the British collective memory--I believe started on June 15th, which is my birthday, , although I wasn't born yet in And, so, the idea of the freeborn Englishperson, Englishman is what they would have said in those days, meant that rights of parliament had to be respected.
When it looks like those kings are going to restore Catholicism, at least have lots of paintings of swooning cherubs, and cupids, and Baroque Italian art in Windsor, and London, and these other places, then you've got a revolution. So, absolute rulers didn't really have to pay attention to these assemblies. The best example I can think of offhand, I should let this wait, but Peter the Great, the czar of the Russians, who may or may not have beaten his son to death, at least he ordered him tortured.
Peter the Great was a huge sort of power-forward-sized guy at a time when people were very small. He had this thing called the drunken assembly, which was in a way kind of a mockery of parliamentary representations where his cronies would come and just get wasted and would make all sorts of flamboyant proclamations that seemed to represent what a real parliament would do.
But in fact, Peter the Great listened to whom he wanted to and ignored the others. And sometimes had them killed if he had to, if he thought that's what he should do, because there wasn't any sort of challenge to his authority. That, my friends, is part of what it meant. So, I already mentioned about how nobles become junior partners in absolutism.
That's not a bad phrase, junior partners in absolutism. So, what happens? Two ways of measuring how this happened and what difference it made is to realize, to return to what I said earlier, that big state structures involve bureaucracies. So, the king's representatives go out in the name of the king. They give out justice, or the lack of justice, or they send armies in, or taxes, or this stuff.
Now, the Renaissance city-states of Italy had relatively efficient administrations, to be sure. But these are royal bureaucracies that expand dramatically in size. Even though decentralized England expands its bureaucracy and collected taxes much more efficiently than across the channel in France, state-making involved more officials there.
So, in order to raise money, you have to enforce taxes. So, you may farm taxes out to someone. They'll keep as much of the cut as they can possibly steal. Or to make money you'll sell noble titles. This gets the French kings into trouble. Or you sell monopolies. Peter the Great had a monopoly on dice, because people gambled a lot.
The nobles gambled all the time. You could gamble serfs, real people. You could gamble them. You could lose them with a bad hand. This was Russia. So, the monopoly on dice he sells. He sells the monopoly on salt. Salt was a big commodity, obviously, for storing meat.
That monopoly is sold in various places. So, these officials, nobles get these kinds of officials, and really, they could rake it in, get these titles and they are representing the king. They're governors, or intendants you call them in France. And it expands the number of officials dramatically. Then there's warfare. There is nothing more symptomatic of the growth of absolute rule than the growth of powerful armies. Again, when you traveling around Europe, if you're lucky to do that, you'll see these big fortified towns.
And these are fortress-like defenses in an age of essentially defensive warfare. But if you're going to have a big old fort, and you're going to have lots of cannon that you hope to use against your craven, reptile enemies that would want to get in your way, you've got to have people to try out the cannon. You have to have people who live in these fortifications.
So, the size of the armies for these megalomaniac wars, these dynastic wars between Austria and France--and then they changed partners in , and all of this business. You can read about that. But the big story is huge, huge, huge amount of troops. During the sixteenth century, the peacetime armies of the Continental Powers were about 10, to 20, soldiers--very, very little.
By the s, , soldiers. The French army, which was then in the s , people. That's twice the Michigan football stadium. Can you imagine a stadium packed with soldiers and all that? How boring. But, anyway, it rose to , soldiers, the largest in Europe. I think I have in this edition a table the size of European armies. Habsburg empire, , 50,; , , A polyglot army, too, because of all the different nationalities.
Prussia identified with the Junkers, the nobles who were army officers, the dueling scars that they had--that Bismarck would have in a unified Germany, a mere 30, people in ; , people during the Seven Years' War; in , ,; in , as they're fighting Napoleon, , people. This is in a state that barely extends beyond Brandenburg and Pomerania in what now is Western Poland, and still Prussia in the unified Germany.
Even Sweden, at the time of the Battle of Poltava. Forget it. Well, don't forget it, but read about. In , that's when Sweden loses to Russia. The Swedish army was , people, soldiers. That's an awful lot. So, that's one of the things that happens. The modern state in action, the absolute state in action is the army.
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