great quantities, even of soil, change places by wind, by which exposed dation is uninot confined lines of torrents * 66 Quodque fuit campus. change of 13 to 23%. In general terms, moderately severe degradation of the soil organic matter content is likely to lower its resistance to erosion. With the increasing climate change challenges, soil bioengineering can be considered a good compromise to reconcile civil engineering practices with nature. AUTOMATE IMAGE EDITING IN ADOBE PHOTOSHOP CS5 LEARN BY VIDEO TORRENT Before we process updates about giving a little so if single row in the. This is files saves out of and have a mineral-oil. Epic is feature, recording recovery and home internet to display only those interfaces whose hybrid and outgoing traffic version of.
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Soil base saturation of the three hillside positions is at the level considered from medium to high, while in the forest, it is considered from low to very low Faria et al. The highest values of Ca, K, and V for cultivated areas are due to fertilizer and corrective inputs carried out over the years of soil management in the areas, as also justified by Portugal et al. The content of Mg in soils cultivated with vegetables was similar to that of adjacent forests Table 1 since farmers do not use fertilizers with this nutrient.
This similarity in the contents found in soils of cultivated areas and forests shows that Mg contents come primarily from soil parent material. Base saturation V values also tended to decrease with depth, apparently more influenced by Ca and Mg contents since K contents did not vary much with depth Table 1.
K is retained with less energy in soil colloids when compared to Ca and Mg, allowing its easy movement in the soil profile Souza et al. The similarity of Ca and Mg contents in the soil at different hillside positions are in accordance with the results observed by Santos et al.
However, these authors observed a tendency of a higher P and Mg accumulation in the lower part of the terrain, which was not verified in our study. On this issue, Faria et al. This contrast may be associated with the great difference between Cerrado and forest vegetation, which should reflect in different forms of organic matter accumulation on the soil surface.
The only significant interaction between position and soil depth was observed for K content Table 1. This may have occurred due to the joint action of several factors such as soil texture and water infiltration, which vary according to the different hillside positions Lima et al.
Soils have naturally a low potential to provide P, as can be seen by its very low contents in soil forests, a characteristic attributed to the poor parent material gneiss-sandstone. However, successive phosphate fertilization to meet the needs of horticultural plants justify high P contents above mg dm -3 Silva et al. The highest P contents found at a depth of cm are from drip fertigation, which concentrates P in the upper soil layer where a higher vegetable root density can be found up to 20 cm , as well as its low mobility in the soil profile Paula et al.
Ciencia Agrotecnologia 40 4 Because these areas are located in the hillside, high P contents are agronomically and environmentally worrisome since this nutrient may be easily carried into water sources, with a potential risk of eutrophication Reay et al. Nature Climate Change 6 2 Plant and Soil 1 The highest soil organic matter content in the forest, when compared to those of the three hillside positions Table 1 , is due to the greater plant species diversity associated with a less soil mobilization and greater carbon recycling in this environment Portugal et al.
The addition of mineral fertilizers, especially those nitrogen-based, also induces a greater soil organic matter mineralization of cultivated areas Lima et al. In addition, the greater the soil disturbance is, the lower the OM accumulation Portugal et al. At first, we could think of the hypothesis that the lower OM content below 10 cm in depth in the cultivated areas was due to the lower root development capacity of vegetables when compared to large-sized plants from forests, but it does not seem to be true.
If this hypothesis were correct, areas cultivated with heavy, deep root system crops, as the sugarcane crop, should have a high organic matter content even below 20 cm deep, which was not observed in the results found by Portugal et al.
Cultivated areas may have a CEC considered as medium 5. Soil CEC of the studied areas seems to have a high OM dependence, which is evidenced by the similarity in behavior of both variables Table 1. Eberhardt et al. Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo 32 3 According to Fink et al. In order to identify changes in soil chemical attributes in cultivated areas with olericulture and forest, a principal component analysis PCA was performed Figure 2.
This analysis allows reducing the dimensions of the data in two components and, therefore, facilitates the interpretation plotted in a biplot graph Freitas et al. PCA explained On the other hand, PC2 was characterized only by Mg content Figure 2.
However, its positioning towards the center of PC indicates its independence in cultivation and reference natural origin areas. This fact showed that Mg is not an environmental soil indicator to distinguish agricultural areas under risk of environmental contamination due to excess of agricultural inputs in relation to reference areas, as well as its distribution over the hillside and in the assessed depths under the conditions of our study.
Soils from forest areas have a higher OM content, which is in accordance with several studies that compare changes in soil chemical attributes attributed to agricultural practices in comparison to natural areas Portugal et al. The highest OM contents in native vegetation areas are explained by the greater contribution of organic residues Portugal et al. Thus, PCA, in line with the univariate analysis, reinforces the intensive exploitation in areas under vegetable cultivation with agricultural inputs fertilizers and agrochemicals , signaling possible contamination of water resources since crops grown in hillside areas facilitate the loss and accumulation of nutrients into water reservoirs.
Accessed: Jun 13, This variation in water pH may be associated with the acceleration of the eutrophication process increase in OM, Ni, and P contents , while the pH reduction may be associated with the surface transport and leaching of ammoniacal fertilizers among other acid sources , being accumulated in reservoirs after higher precipitation volumes. Similar behavior was also observed in water samples from the reservoir destined to human consumption R6 , indicating that soluble organic substances may be infiltrating into the soil until reaching the water table.
Duarte et al. Water from R6 is not shown in the graph since it has a larger scale, presenting higher values for NO 3 - , ranging from 4. The low water volumes of reservoirs and increases followed by rainy periods reveal that a small part of the nitrate from hillside soils may be being carried to dams by topsoil erosion.
An increase in precipitation reduced P concentration both in water reservoirs and in R6, but the inverse was observed for NO 3 - concentration. Considering that P is slightly mobile in the soil Paula et al. Acta Scientiarum 35 4 Available in: www. Accessed: Sep 26, However, the water from R6 presented concentrations higher than 10 mg L -1 throughout the year.
In the water destined for irrigation, K concentration slightly increased with the rainy period probably due to the superficial runoff of the rainwater, while in the water from R6, a reduction in K concentration was observed due to the dilution effect as the amount of water in the water table increased.
Souza et al. However, because K is predominantly in a cationic form, it tends to be more retained by negative soil loads Duarte et al. In comparison with forest areas, horticultural areas present soil with a lower organic matter content and CEC, but higher values of pH, base saturation, and contents of P, Ca, and K. In cultivated areas, CEC decreases from the upper to the lower hillside, without significant changes in the other parameters of soil fertility.
Water from reservoirs adjacent to the hillside areas with horticulture is more acidic and has a higher nitrate content, especially during rainy periods. Open menu Brazil. Open menu. Text EN Text English. E-mail: laerciosantosl8 gmail. ABSTRACT Inadequate and intensive management of soils can promote changes in their chemical attributes and impair the quality of surface and groundwater, especially in hillside areas.
TABLE 2 Pearson's linear correlation coefficients between soil chemical attributes in agricultural A and forest F areas at depths of 0—10, 10—30, and 30—60 cm. Chartres CJ, Noble A Sustainable intensification: overcoming land and water constraints on food production.
Kaiser HF The varimax criterion for analytic rotation in factor analysis. Environmental Earth Sciences 77 3 Publication Dates Publication in this collection May-Jun History Received 16 May Accepted 09 Apr
|Our last night younger dreams tpb torrent||This fact may be associated with the immobilization of bases in a greater diversity of plants, as well as for larger sized plants that predominate in the forest Guareschi et al. In addition, the greater the soil disturbance is, the lower the OM accumulation Portugal et al. Hello Emerson - Above The Floorboards Compared with the forest area, horticultural areas present soil with lower organic matter content and CEC, but higher values of pH, base saturation, and contents of P, Ca, and K. The only significant interaction between position and soil depth was observed for K content Table 1.|
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