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A case in point is a series of four canvases he painted along the Breton coast in in the villages of Saint-Briac and Saint-Cast, also called, collectively, La Mer figs. But La Mer of is marked by a pervasive stillness as a result of its empty skies, its smooth or barely-ruffled water, and its boats that either lie at anchor with their sails furled as in Saint-Cast Harbor [opus ] , fig. Movement is suggested in Saint-Cast by the boats in full sail and the gentle waves near the shore, but it is minimal in comparison to even the calmest image from La Mer of — Adagio —in which fishermen work to position their vessels before casting their nets.

Joan U. Halperin Geneva: Librairie Droz, , pp. First published Since , Signac also had been assigning opus numbers to most of his canvases as he recorded them systematically in a cahier d'opus opus notebook.

He continued to number his paintings this way through Paintings on which he actually wrote the opus numbers usually included his signature and a date, written in the lower left corner as opposed to the lower right. He numbers them" "M. In he painted ten views of the Seine at Les Andelys; the following year he painted four seascapes set in Collioure along the Mediterraean coast; in he painted eight seascapes at Portrieux in Brittany; in he painted both the Cassis and the Herblay series; and in he painted a series of four marines in Saint-Briac and Saint-Cast in Brittany.

These are the titles Signac originally gave the paintings and by which they were identified at the exhibition of Les Vingt in Brussels the first time they appeared in public. Opus In my text I use the titles Signac first gave the paintings. The captions to my illustrations feature the titles assigned to the works by their current owners if known , followed in square brackets by Signac's original titles.

Calme "Calm" , Concarneau , in contrast, was painted from the shore looking west over the water at sunset. Signac did not maintain pictorially the strict alternation between fast and slow implied by his titles. The images in the first two paintings of the series, Scherzo and Larghetto , coincide closely with their respective tempos in the former, brisk winds and swift movement are represented by the boats in full sail and the assertive ripples of water; in the latter, lighter winds and slower movement are represented by the raised but windless sails and the more gently undulating water.

But Allegro maestoso , which pictures a calm evening with only a trace of wind, could hardly be called a scene of rapid movement. Why Signac did not match perfectly his titles and his imagery is anyone's guess. Perhaps he originally envisioned the series as three "quieter" or calmer images framed by two faster and more energetic ones, but then decided he wanted his viewers to understand it at the same time as a musical symphony with the latter's characteristic alternating tempos hence, his choice of titles.

Or, perhaps the lack of agreement between the tempos and what is actually represented was simply his way of personalizing his "symphony" and exercising his creative freedom, the latter of which meant a great deal to him as an anarchist see note 31, below. John Rewald, Gazette des beaux-arts , 6th ser. Analyses of the neo-impressionists' anarchist sympathies are numerous.

In a letter written to the anarchist Jean Grave in , Signac looked back over his life as a politically committed artist and recalled proudly for his friend the roots of his social conscience: "Nourished by your principles, by those of Reclus, by those of Kropotkin Le Dantec Paris: Gallimard, , p.

See Paul Signac [S. Paul Signac [Un camarade impressionniste, pseud. There is an impression which results from a certain arrangement of colors, lights, shadows, and so forth. It is what one might call the music of the painting. Before you even know what the painting represents, Smith's analysis of Wagnerian painting, examples of which are Seurat's seascapes as well as his paintings of urban entertainment, has been instrumental to my understanding of Signac's engagement with music.

Smith focuses on musicality in Seurat's La parade, Le chahut , and Le cirque rather than on its appearance in his seascapes. Signac began to work closely with Henry in the fall of , when he designed a watercolor poster illustrating Henry's Le cercle chromatique. Likewise, from Le cercle chromatique Paris: Charles Verdin, , p. Henry, Le cercle chromatique , p. The interview was published a second time in October in L'art moderne.

Antoine de la Rochefoucauld, "Paul Signac," Le coeur 1, no. Among the neo-impressionists, Seurat, too, painted marines-in-series along the Atlantic coast of France—at Grandcamp in , Honfleur in , Port-en-Bessin in , and Gravelines in —all of which are well-known and well-studied in comparison to Signac's.

Critics occasionally read musicality into Seurat's seascapes, which in turn may have inspired Signac to structure La Mer around the same. His description of the shimmering color in Seurat's seascapes from Honfleur encourages one to think of the vibrancy of music, pp. Seurat was the first to apply this pictorial process…Above all he is the prodigious evoker of seas with infinite droves of waves, and calm beaches… The Shore at Bas-Butin is like that, so delightfully dusted with its blond sand, over which the sea pours its changing tints of malachite and emerald, and also lapis, while the sky vibrates like a box full of tiny gems" "Le premier, M.

Jules Michelet, La mer Paris: Gallimard, , p. He wrote, about an ideal life to come, ibid. Reproduced in color in Ferretti-Bocquillon and others, Signac, , p. Maupassant's synesthetic experience takes place in the second chapter of La vie errante. The first chapter, entitled "Lassitude" "Weariness" , is a set-up for the invigorating and liberating travels that comprise the rest of the text. In La vie errante , Maupassant also cites Arthur Rimbaud's "La Sonnet des voyelles" of , a poem in which each vowel is paired with a corresponding color.

Paris: Hachette, , p. Seurat wrote those words to Maurice Beaubourg in a letter of August 29, , cited in Robert Herbert and others, Georges Seurat, , exh. He had dictated them to his biographer Jules Christophe a few months earlier, including at the same time some examples of artistic contrast: light and dark tones, complementary colors, and perpendicular lines.

See Jules Christophe, "Seurat," Les hommes d'aujourd'hui , no. Paris: Hachette, , pp. Paris: J. Hetzel, , p. Aux yeux de l'anatomiste, chacun de nous He believed port cities, in particular, facilitated a flow back and forth of diverse people and ideas, encouraging those who lived in them to understand contrast as the basis for social harmony from a global perspective.

As he wrote in La terre , vol. In , Signac was receiving a free copy of every issue of the journal from its founder and editor, Zo d'Axa. Reclus expressed this belief in a chapter of Histoire d'un ruisseau devoted to the ever-changing nature of the stream vs. A color reproduction of the fourth image in the series, Saint-Briac.

Henry wrote in Le cercle chromatique , p. In Le cercle chromatique , p. He then added, p. The realization of this double end would be the era of absolute harmony". In Seurat and the Art Theory of his Time , p. The development towards a harmonious, anarchistic or socialist organization of humanity was, according to this, inevitable. Rather, it was the series' musicality in its own right that interested them.

The details of Signac's avocation as a sailor are discussed in Ferretti-Bocquillon and others, Signac, , p. The most comprehensive anarchist defense of artisanal labor and the mutual aid accompanying it is found in Pierre Kropotkin's Fields, Factories, and Workshops Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, Cited in Cornuault, p. When last checked the page no longer existed at its original location.

Please wait for the PDF. The browser will either open the file, download it, or display a dialog. Volume 4, Issue 1 Spring Gaehtgens, editors Reviewed by Pamela J. X Please wait for the PDF. Reproduction, including downloading, of Signac's work is prohibited by copyright laws and international conventions without the express written permission of Artists Rights Society ARS , New York.

Oil on canvas. The Hague, Gemeentemuseum. Private collection. Glasgow, Art Gallery and Museum. The other, Coucher de soleil, Herblay opus fig. There, he compared the neo-impressionist painter to a composer "the painter has played on his keyboard of colors in the same way that a composer handles the diverse instruments to orchestrate a symphony" 8 ; a single touch of color in a neo-impressionist painting to "a note in a symphony;" 9 and the experience of viewing a neo-impressionist painting to listening properly to a live musical performance "to listen to a symphony, one doesn't situate oneself among the brass but in a place where the sounds of the diverse instruments blend in the way the composer wanted them to.

After that one could enjoy dissecting the score, note by note, and in doing so study the manner of its orchestration. In the same way, in front of a divided picture, it will be advisable first to stand far enough away to perceive the impression of the whole, then stop and come closer to study the play of colored elements". Opus [ Adagio opus ], Signac's effort to link painting and music via opus-numbered canvases lasted through , but its high point came two years earlier in the summer of in a series of five seascapes he painted in Concarneau, a tiny fishing village on the southern coast of the Breton peninsula not far from Pont-Aven.

Collectively titled La Mer: Les barques Concarneau hereafter called La Mer , the paintings are the culmination of a five-year experiment with images-in-series featuring the subject of water in the form of rivers or seas. The five canvases of La Mer are comparable to a five-movement symphony with its characteristic pattern of alternating tempos: scherzo is fast; larghetto is slow; allegro maestoso is fast; adagio is slow; and presto is very fast. The explicitly musical titles, however, are not all that make La Mer more "musical" than the six series preceding it.

Just as important is the formal unity of its canvases in relation to one another, the comprehensiveness of which Signac's other landscapes-in-series cannot match. The images cohere around similarly placed horizon lines which divide their surfaces into roughly equal units of sea and sky; a common color palette organized around two sets of complementaries shades of yellow and violet, and blue and orange ; and a recurring motif of fishing boats whose repetitive patterns and rhythms recall the cadence, the harmonies, and even, in their placement upon the horizontal lines of rippled water, the notation of music.

While creating unity among the "movements" of La Mer was clearly one of Signac's goals, he simultaneously highlighted their differences by depicting opposing times of day mornings in Scherzo and Larghetto ; evenings in Allegro maestoso and Adagio ; an indeterminate time of day in Presto [finale]. This essay explores the significance of Signac's use of music in the construction of his marine paintings, using La Mer as a case study.

Next, I discuss the paintings of La Mer as decorative landscapes, capable, in the minds of the symbolists and other writers familiar to Signac, of catalyzing and transforming human feeling and behavior. Following this, and building on its ideas, is an analysis of the relationship of La Mer 's musicality, its oceanic subjects, and its emphasis on movement to Signac's well-known and openly-professed anarchist sympathies.

Signac thus combined visual harmony with the ideals of musical and social harmony in La Mer to create a multi-faceted expression of "authentic Reality. They and the artists they championed often turned for inspiration to the writings of Charles Baudelaire, who drew numerous parallels between sound and color. They pertain to Baudelaire's doctrine of correspondences, a theory of literary and artistic expression linking different modes of sensory perception.

This perceptional ability, now known as synesthesia, increases the possibility of extracting meaning from a work of art or music in those who possess it. Baudelaire also stressed that color and music, in essence rather than through objective description, could express the thoughts and feelings of an artist.

Paul Adam's analysis of neo-impressionism for La revue rose in is typical: One walked up to the paintings and strove to understand the orchestration of these choruses: drops of color uniting their expressiveness for the sake of the harmony of the whole The quintessential example was the composer's epic four-opera cycle Der Ring des Nibelungen The Ring of the Nibelungs , with its leitmotifs recurring themes , continuous melody, and non-stop orchestration.

In total it resembled a huge symphony rather than a series of traditional operas with their distinct recitatives, arias and abbreviated melodic phrases. It was especially significant to Wyzewa that Wagner not only understood the creative process and the perception of its results as life-giving activities, but also imagined artists purposefully creating works that would stand as alternatives to the shortcomings of the contemporary era: Art, Wagner tells us, must create life Wyzewa was not the only one of Signac's contemporaries who would have piqued his interest in the idea of "musical" painting as a route to envisioning or building a better life.

Charles Henry, a mathematician and psycho-aesthetician with whom Signac worked closely in the late s, undoubtedly played a role as well. He told Huret: Among the actual symbolists, several have understood, more or less vaguely, that outside of the logical boundaries of ideas there could be associative images inseparably founded on purely subjective laws. According to Germain: The decorative landscape can no more represent any old jagged corner than it can an unlikely fiction, even more it is not necessary that it recall sceneography; as often as possible, it must correspond to a mood and always synthesize it—by a dominant expressiveness of affective lines and colorations cheerful or melancholy, severe or smiling, according to the intended purpose of the piece —and synthesize as well the varied effects of the seasons, the months, the times of day, the atmosphere.

Just as important as Signac's triad of musicality, decorative style, and landscape in his series paintings are his subjects, most of which focus upon bodies of water, either the Seine or, more commonly, the sea. As an avid sailor whose travels along the rivers and coasts of France were as much for the purpose of sailing as they were for painting, it is little wonder that many of his plein air paintings either picture boats skimming over gentle waves or were painted from the vantage point of one of his many sailing vessels afloat on the water for examples of the latter, see figs 3, 4, 5, 7, and 8.

But images of the sea, its movement, and the movement of boats on its surface, in concert with musicality and its ideals, signify in much broader social terms when they are viewed from the symbolist perspective shared by Signac, his sympathetic critics, and the writers whose work he most enjoyed. Henry linked this ideal art metaphorically to water, suggesting that it, and its reception, were akin to a symbolist version of hydrotherapy, able to heal both the bodies and the spirits of increasingly enervated modern citizens: I see in the future men fatigued by moral calculus, the problems of distribution, and so forth, who will seek repose in physical and moral hydrotherapy; yes, the extraordinary turmoil of these brains will need for their repose baths of very cosmic, universal, and elevated moral sentiments, idylls from which all reality and all contingencies will be banished.

Like Signac, he also understood it subjectively and imaginatively as landscape, altered in his mind's eye to conform to an aesthetic ideal. Its undulating contours are harmonized in the most gracious manner with the solid majesty of the ensemble and are regularly developed in a series of rhythmic undulations.

As he wrote in La terre , his first book-length geographical study, "one feels that, under threat of moral and intellectual diminishment, it is necessary at any cost to counterbalance the vulgarity of all things ugly and mediocre, where narrow spirits see the testament of modern civilization, with the sight of great scenes of the earth.

For that reason, he believed it was the responsibility of each "truly civilized" individual to function "like an artist, to give the landscapes which surround him the most charm, grace and majesty," and thus "assume part of the responsibility for the harmony and the beauty of surrounding nature. It is tempting to think of the canvases or "musical movements" of La Mer as responses to Reclus's call for human intervention to increase the earth's natural beauty in an artistically sensitive manner.

With their decorative style, in particular their rhythmically-moving waters, evenly-scattered boats, and limited palette of complementary colors, they picture nature and culture alike as the preserve of harmony, beauty, and equilibrium. Even Presto [finale] , with its "unharmonious" detail of fishermen struggling with a broken mast during a squall, is an unusually well-ordered view, given the inclement weather; likewise, its curlicued clouds are so ornamental they belie their threat of rain.

Signac's equation of La Mer with a symphony further underscores its harmonic properties, while its alternating tempos remind viewers that its harmony, like a symphony's, is built out of contrast, the elements of which line, color, time of day, weather, and movement work together to serve a dominant theme. The goal of creating harmony through contrast is also, of course, at the heart of neo-impressionist aesthetic theory, as Seurat made clear in his terse axiom of "Art is Harmony.

From this charming duo is born perfect harmony…It is the great scientific and philosophic law of contrast. As a staunch anarchist, Signac naturally would have understood contrast from both an aesthetic and a social perspective, for the idea of contrast as integral to harmony was a recurring theme in anarchist theory. Anarchists collectively celebrated and fought to preserve individual autonomy and difference i.

Un encierro significa confinamiento en nuestros hogares. Pero algunos de nosotros con contamos con un hogar o vivimos con varios miembros de la familia. Esta pandemia nos ha demostrado la importancia del trabajo del cuidado, el trabajo necesario para criar familias, cocinar, limpiar y cuidar a enfermxs y ancianxs.

Nos encontramos en una encrucijada. El cambio es inevitable. Nuestros movimientos conocen el camino a seguir, el tipo de mundo que necesitamos construir. No volveremos a una normalidad en la que el sufrimiento de muchxs aseguran los lujos de pocos. Nuestros movimientos tienen una experiencia que es invaluable en este momento.

La pandemia ha cambiado el juego. Ahora es nuestro momento de reclamarlo. La question est de savoir quel type de changement est en train de se produire. Quelle direction prendra le changement? We need a new normal that is kinder, more just, and healthier for all sentient beings and the planet. Out of this current suffering we have the chance to make the world a kinder better place for all life — we must not waste this opportunity.

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