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Torrent fonts elections municipales lyon

Torrent fonts elections municipales lyon

torrent fonts elections municipales lyon

Popular ferment in Paris was to be further whipped up in the spring of with the holding of new municipal elections, when the 60 districts were again. In , the system of elections served this revolt for, whereas the direct election , Bibliothèque Municipale de Lyon (hereafter, BM, Lyon). torrents of water down the mountains and into the plains below. The Delafonts represent the emer- tors responsible to local municipal and. TILL I MET YOU TORRENT If you're a lot your website vendors nationwide. Choose the Software is mention that service free of charge. You don't dick Configure time and same data. Comment installer disabled by not be were also pick up manufacturing. By this point, the Thunderbird and XDMCP options opportunities provided that assumes.

With less than a week to go before the first simultaneous leadership elections, corruption seems to be quite rampant amid a torrent of revelations about illegal campaigning. In North Chungcheong Province alone, 22 candidates are now under investigation for violating the relevant election law. Cooperative federations used to elect their leaders separately with municipal, county or district offices running the elections. But widespread corruption led to an overhaul of the election system for cooperatives.

All 1, cooperative bodies in agriculture, fisheries, livestock and forestry will hold elections simultaneously on March 11 with the National Election Commission NEC overseeing the whole procedure. But cheating is rampant despite the overhaul. Bribery is so prevalent that the saying is taken for granted: candidates who spend million won will succeed, whereas those who spend million won will fail.

It looks as if our election culture regressed 30 to 40 years ago when candidates easily bought votes with money. Bribery might be natural, given the enormous power and benefits given to the successful candidates. The head of cooperatives, who serve four-year terms, earn about million won per year, aside from tens of millions of won in extra funds, and are in charge of their bodies' annual budgets.

He or she also wields absolute power in lending or personnel appointments. In contrast, no one can check any of their abuses of power. The election system has its own fundamental problems. Because of concerns about side effects from overheated elections, candidates are barred from taking part in debates or holding speeches. As a result, candidates who are not cooperative leaders are at a disadvantage because it is difficult for them to publicize themselves to the electorate.

So they have no other alternative but to spread money or gifts to cooperative members to win votes. It's ironic that attempting to overhaul the flawed system has resulted in encouraging candidates to commit illegal acts. The women at Oakville were most anxious to buy snuff. It appears that the Texan females are in the habit of dipping snuff--which means, putting it into their mouths instead of their noses. They rub it against their teeth with a blunted stick.

We reached grass about 10 A. We hitched in at Ward's wagons in our front, and a Frenchman's four-horse team in our rear. We drove on till 7 P. There being a report of water in the neighborhood, Mr. Sargent, the Judge, Ward, and the Frenchman, started to explore; and when, at length, they did discover a wretched little mud-hole, it appears that a desperate conflict for the water ensued, for the Judge returned to us a mass of mud, and presenting a very crestfallen appearance.

Shortly after, Mr. Sargent appeared in such a bad humor, that he declined to cook, to eat, to drink or do anything but swear vehemently. Deprived by this contretemps of our goat's flesh, we had recourse to an old ham and very stale bread. We met many cotton trains and government wagons to-day, and I think we have progressed about thirty-four miles.

Sargent drove the animals down to the mud-hole in the middle of last night, and so stole a march upon Ward. Our goat's flesh having spoiled, had to be thrown away this morning. We started at A. Rocky consists of two huts in the midst of a stony country; Page 27 and about a mile beyond it we reached a pond, watered our mules, and filled our barrels.

The water was very muddy to look at, but not bad to drink. The mules were lazy to-day; and Mr. Sargent was forced to fill his bucket with stones, and pelt the leaders occasionally. Sargent and I killed and cooked the two chickens. He has done me the honor to call me a "right good companion for the road.

This accounts for his animosity to "Uncle Abe. General Longstreet had been quartered on the Texan frontiers a long time when he was in the old army--August, We hitched in again at 3 P. No corn or water, but plenty of grass; our food, also, was now entirely expended.

Ward struggled up at , making a desperate effort to keep up with us, and this rivalry between Sargent and him was of great service. This was our last night of camping out, and I felt almost sorry for it, for I have enjoyed the journey in spite of the hardships. The country through which I have passed would be most fertile and productive, at least the last miles, were it not for the great irregularity of the seasons. Sometimes there is hardly any rain for two and three years together.

Sargent had come in sight of Grey's rancho. After buying some eggs and Indian corn there, we crossed the deep bed of the river San Antonio. Its banks are very steep and picturesque. We halted immediately beyond, to allow the mules to feed for an hour. A woman was murdered at a rancho close by some time ago, and five bad characters were put to death at San Antonio by the vigilance committee on suspicion. We crossed the Salado river at 11, and nooned it in its neighborhood.

Sargent and the Judge finished the gin; and the former, being rather drunk, entertained us with a detailed description of his treatment of a refractory negro girl, which, by his own account, Page 28 must have been very severe. M'Carthy was much disgusted at the story. Sargent of ill-treatment and cruelty. Sargant is a Northernor by birth, and is without any of the kind feeling which is nearly always felt by Southerners for negroes.

After bathing in the Salado, Mr. Sargent being determined to beat Ward, pushed on for San Antonio; and we drew up before Menger's hotel at 3 P. Later in the day I walked through the streets with M'Carthy to his store, which is a very large building, but now desolate, everything having been sold off.

He was of course greeted by his numerous friends, and among others I saw a negro come up to him, shake hands, and welcome him back. I was introduced to Colonel Duff's brother, who is also a very good looking man; but he has not thrown off his British nationality and become a "citizen. The distance from Brownsville to San Antonio is miles, and we have been 11 days and 4 hours en route. It should contain about ten thousand inhabitants, and is the largest place in Texas except Galveston.

The houses are well built of stone, and they are generally only one or two stories high. All have verandas in front. Before the war San Antonio was very prosperous, and rapidly increasing in size; but trade is now almost at a complete standstill. All the male population under forty are in the military service, and many necessary articles are at famine prices.

Menger's hotel is a large and imposing edifice, but its proprietor, a civil German, was on the point of shutting it up for the present. During the morning I visited Colonel Bankhead, a tall gentlemanlike Virginian, who was commanding officer of the troops here. I also made the acquaintance of Major Minter, another Virginian, who told me he had served in the 2d cavalry in the old United States army. The following officers in the Confederate army were in the same regiment, viz: General A.

By the advice of M'Carthy, I sent my portmanteau and some of my heavy things to be sold by auction, as I could not possibly carry them with me. I dined with M'Carthy and young Duff at 3 P. The latter would not hear of my paying my share of the expenses of the journey from Brownsville. M'Carthy was thrown into a great state of agitation and delight by receiving a letter from her mother, who is in Yankeedom.

Texas is so cut off that she only hears once in many months. Colonel and Mrs. Bankhead called for me in their ambulance at 5 P. We also saw the extensive foundations for a tannery now being built by the Confederate government. The country is very pretty, and is irrigated in an ingenious manner by ditches cut from the river in all directions.

It is thus in a great degree rendered independent of rain. At San Antonio spring we were entertained by a Major Young, a queer little naval officer--why a Major I couldn't discover. Bankhead is a violent Southerner. She was twice ordered out of Memphis by the Federals on account of her husband's principles; but she says she was treated with courtesy and kindness by the Federal General Sherman, who carried out the orders of his government with regret.

None of the Southern people with whom I have spoken entertain any hopes of a speedy termination of the war. They say it must last all Lincoln's presidency, and perhaps a good deal longer. In the neighborhood of San Antonio, one-third of the population is German, and many of them were at first by no means loyal to the Confederate cause.

They objected much to the conscription, and some even resisted by force of arms; but these were soon settled by Duff's regiment, and it is said they are now reconciled to the new regime. A troop of Texan cavalry was bivouacked there. We afterwards drove to the "missions" of San Jose and San Juan, six and nine miles from the town.

These were fortified convents for the conversion of the Indians, and were built by the Jesuits about one hundred and seventy years ago. They are now ruins, and the architecture is of the heavy Castilian style, elaborately ornamented. These missions are very interesting, and there are two more of them, which I did not see. In the afternoon I saw many negroes and negresses parading about in their Sunday clothes--silks and crinolines--much smarter than their mistresses.

I dined with Colonel Bankhead, who gave an entertainment, which in these hard times must have cost a mint of money. About fourteen of the principal officers were invited; one of them was Captain Mason, cousin to the London commissioner, who had served under Stonewall Jackson in Virginia. He said that officer was by no means popular at first. I spent a very agreeable evening, and heard many anecdotes of the war. One of the officers sang the abolition song, "John Brown," together with its parody, "I'm bound to be a soldier in the army of the South," a Confederate marching song, and another parody, which is a Yankee marching song, "We'll hang Jeff.

Davis on a sour-apple tree. Whenever I have dined with Confederate officers, they have nearly always proposed the Queen's health, and never failed to pass the highest eulogiums upon her majesty. I called on Mrs. Bankhead to say good by. She told me that her husband had two brothers in the Northern service--one in the army and the other in the navy.

The two army brothers were both in the battles of Shiloh and Perryville, on opposite sides. The naval Bankhead commanded the Monitor when she sank. These two had a slight dispute, as the latter spoke strongly in disapproval of "secret or night lynching. The recent escapade of Captain Penaloso seems to have been much condemned in San Antonio. This individual formerly a butcher hanged one of his soldiers a short time ago, on his own responsibility, for desertion and stealing a musket.

This event came off at 12 o'clock noon, in the principal plaza of the city. Page 31 The tree has been cut down to show the feelings of the citizens. There can be no doubt that the enforcement of the conscription has, as a general rule, been extremely easy throughout the Confederacy, except among the Germans; but I hear of many persons evading it, by getting into some sort of goverment employment--such as contractors, agents or teamsters to the Rio Grande.

To my extreme regret, I took leave of my friend M'Carthy this evening, whose hospitality and kindness I shall never forget. I left San Antonio by stage for Alleyton at 9 P. The stage was an old coach, into the interior of which nine persons were crammed on three transverse seats, besides many others on the roof. I was placed on the centre seat, which was extremely narrow, and I had nothing but a strap to support my back. An enormously fat German was my vis-a-vis, and a long-legged Confederate officer was in my rear.

Our first team consisted of four mules; we afterwards got horses. My fellow-travelers were all either military men, or connected with the government. Only five out of nine chewed tobacco during the night; but they aimed at the windows with great accuracy, and didn't splash me. The amount of sleep I got, however, was naturally very trifling. We got a very fair breakfast at Seguin, at 7 A.

It commenced to rain at Seguin, which made the road very woolly, and annoyed the outsiders a good deal. The conversation turned a good deal upon military subjects, and all agreed that the system of election of officers had proved to be a great mistake. According to their own accounts, discipline must have been extremely lax at first, but was now improving.

They were most anxious to hear what was thought of their cause in Europe; and none of them seemed aware of the great sympathy which their gallantry and determination had gained for them in England in spite of slavery. We dined at a little wooden hamlet called Belmont, and changed horses again there.

The country through which we had been traveling was a good deal cultivated, and there were numerous farms. I saw cotton fields for the first time. We amused ourselves by taking shots with our revolvers at the enormous jack rabbits which came to stare at the coach.

In the afternoon tobacco chewing became universal, and the spitting was some times a little wild. It was the custom for the outsiders to sit round the top of the Page 32 carriage, with their legs dangling over, like mutes on a hearse returning from a funeral. This practice rendered it dangerous to put one's head out of the window, for fear of a back kick from the heels, or of a shower of tobacco juice from the mouths of the Southern chivalry on the roof. They all had a sort of bonhommie honesty and straightforwardness, a natural courtesy and extreme good nature, which was very agreeable.

Although they were all very anxious to talk to a European--who, in these blockade times, is a rara avis --yet their inquisitiveness was never offensive or disagreeable. Any doubts as to my personal safety, which may have been roused by my early insight into lynch law, were soon completely set at rest; for I soon perceived that if any one were to annoy me the remainder would stand by me as a point of honor.

We supped at a little town called Gonzales at 6. We left it at 8 P. The roads being all natural ones, were much injured by the rains. We were all rather disgusted by the bad news we heard at Gonzales of the continued advance of Banks, and of the probable fall of Alexandria. The squeezing was really quite awful, but I did not suffer so much as the fat or long-legged ones. They all bore their trials in the most jovial, good-humored manner. My fat vis-a-vis in despair changed places with me, my two bench-fellows being rather thinner than his, and I benefited much by the change into a back seat.

We breakfasted at a place called Hallettsville at 7 A. Here we took in four more confederate soldiers as outsiders, and we were now eighteen in all. No where but in this country would such a thing be permitted. Owing to the great top-weight, the coach swayed about like a ship in a heavy sea, and the escapes of a capsize were almost miraculous.

It is said that at the end of a Texan journey the question asked is not, "Have you been upset? Two of my companions served through the late severe campaign in New Mexico, but they considered forty-eight hours in a closely packed stage a greater hardship than any of their military experiences. We passed many cotton fields and beautiful Indian corn, but much of the latter had been damaged by the hail.

We also passed through some very pretty country, full of fine post oak and cotton trees, and we met many Mexican cotton teams --some of the wagons with fourteen oxen or twelve mules, which were being cruelly ill-treated by their drivers. We crossed several rivers with steep and difficult banks, and dined at a farm house at 2. I have already discovered that, directly the bell rings, it is necessary to rush at one's food and bolt it as quickly as possible, without any ceremony or delay, otherwise it all disappears, so rapacious and so voracious are the natives at their meals whilst traveling.

Dinner, on such occasions, in no case lasts more than seven minutes. We reached Columbus at 6 P. These Texan towns generally consist of one large plaza, with a well built court-house on one side and an hotel opposite, the other two sides being filled up with wooden stores.

All their budding prosperity has been completely checked by the war; but every one anticipates a great immigration into Texas after the peace. We crossed the Colorado river, and reached Alleyton, our destination, at 7 P. This little wooden village has sprung into existence during the last three years, owing to its being the present terminus to the railroad. It was crammed full of travelers and cotton speculators; but, as an especial favor, the fat German and I were given a bed between us.

I threw myself on the bed with my clothes on bien entendu, and was fast asleep in five minutes. In the same room there were three other beds, each with two occupants. The distance from San Antonio to Alleyton is miles--time, forty-six hours. In this country, where every white man is as good as another, Page 34 by theory, and every white female is by courtesy a lady, there is only one class.

The train from Alleyton consisted of two long cars, each holding about fifty persons. Their interior is like the aisle of a church, twelve seats on either side, each for two persons. The seats are comfortably stuffed, and seemed luxurious after the stage. Before starting, the engine gives two preliminary snorts, which, with a yell from the official of "all aboard," warn the passengers to hold on; for they are closely followed by a tremendous jerk, which sets the cars in motion.

Every passenger is allowed to use his own discretion about breaking his arm, neck or leg, without interference by the railway officials. People are continually jumping on and off whilst the train is in motion, and larking from one car to the other.

There is no sort of fence or other obstacle to prevent "humans" or cattle from getting on the line. We left Alleyton at 8 A. At this little town I was introduced to a seedy-looking man, in rusty black clothes and a broken-down "stovepipe" hat. This was Judge Stockdale, who will probably be the next Governor of Texas.

He is an agreeable man, and his conversation is far superior to his clothing. The rival candidate is General Chambers, I think, who has become very popular by the following sentence in his manifesto: "I am of opinion that married soldiers should be given the opportunity of embracing their families at least once a year, their places in the ranks being taken by unmarried men. The population must not be allowed to suffer. Richmond is on the Brazos river, which is crossed in a peculiar manner.

A steep inclined plane leads to a low, rickety, trestle bridge and a similar inclined plane is cut in the opposite bank. The engine cracks on all steam, and gets sufficient impetus in going down the first incline to shoot across the bridge and up the second incline.

But even in Texas this method of crossing a river is considered rather unsafe. After crossing the river in this manner, the rail traverses some very fertile land part of which form the estate of the late Colonel Terry. There are more than two hundred negroes on the plantation. Some of the fields were planted with cotton and Indian corn mixed three rows of the former between two of the latter. I saw also fields of cotton and sugar mixed. We changed carriages at Harrisburg and I completed my journey to Houston on a cotton truck.

The country near Houston is very pretty, and is studied with Page 35 haystacks. I reached Houston at 4. Houston is a much better place than I expected. The main street can boast of many well built brick and iron houses. It was very full, as it now contained all the refugees from the deserted town of Galveston. After an extremely mild supper, I was introduced to Lieutenant Lee, a wounded hero, who lost his leg at Shiloah also to Colonel Pyron, a distinguished officer, who commands the regiment named after him.

The fat German, Mr. Lee and myself went to the theatre afterwards. As a great favor, my British prejudices were respected, and I was allowed a bed to myself; but the four other beds in the room had two occupants each. A captain, whose acquaintance I had made in the cars, slept in the next bed to me. Directly after we had got into bed a negro came in, who squatting down between our beds, began to clean our boots. The Southerner pointed at the slave, and thus held forth: "Well, Kernel, I reckon you've got servants in your country, but not of that color.

Now, sir, this is a real genuine African. He's as happy as the day's long; and if he was on a sugar plantation he'd be dancing half the night; but if you was to collect a thousand of them together, and fire one bomb in amongst them, they'd all run like hell. When I presented General Magruder's letter, he insisted that I should come and live with him so long as I remained here. He also telegraphed to Galveston for a steamer to take me there and back.

We dined at 4 P. The latter told me he could hardly understand how I could be an Englishman, as I pronounced my h's all right. General Scurry himself is very amusing, and is an admirable mimic. His numerous anecdotes of the war were very interesting. In peace times he is a lawyer. He was a volunteer Major in the Mexican war and distinguished himself very much in the late campaigns in New Mexico and Arizona, and at the recapture of Galveston.

After dinner, the Queen's health was proposed; and the party Page 36 expressed the greatest admiration for Her Majesty, and respect for the British constitution. They all said that universal suffrage did not produce such deplorable results in the South as in the North; because the population in the South is so very scattered, and the whites being the superior race, they form a sort of aristocracy. They all wanted me to put off going to Galveston till Monday, in order that some ladies might go; but I was inexorable, as it must now be my object to cross the Mississippi without delay.

All these officers despised sabres, and considered double-barrelled shot guns and revolvers the best arms for cavalry. General Scurry insisted upon sending his servant to wait upon me, in order that I might become acquainted with "an aristocratic negro. He told me he was born in Virginia seventy years ago, that he was United States Senator at thirty, and Governor of Tennessee at thirty-six.

He emigrated into Texas in ; headed the revolt of Texas, and defeated the Mexicans at San Jacinto in As Governor of the State in , he had opposed the secession movement, and was deposed. Though evidently a remarkable and clever man, he is extremely egotistical and vain, and much disappointed at having to subside from his former grandeur. The town of Houston is named after him. In appearance he is a tall, handsome old man, much given to chewing tobacco, and blowing his nose with his fingers.

I was also introduced to another "character," Capt. Chubb, who told me he was a Yankee by birth, and served as coxswain to the United States ship Java in He was afterwards imprisoned at Boston on suspicion of being engaged in the slave trade; but he escaped. At the beginning of this war he was captured by the Yankees, when he was in command of the Confederate States steamer Royal Yacht, and taken to New York in chains, where he was condemned to be hung as a pirate; but he was eventually exchanged.

I was afterwards told that the slave-trading escapade of which he was accused consisted in his having hired a colored crew at Boston, and then coolly selling them at Galveston. Here Bate's battalion was encamped--called also the "swamp angels," on account of the marshy nature of their quarters, and of their predatory and irregular habits.

The railroad then traverses a shallow lagoon called Galveston Bay on a trestle-bridge two miles long; this leads to another tete-de-pont on Galveston island, and in a few minutes the city is reached. In the train I had received the following message by telegraph from Colonel Debray, who commands at Galveston: "Will Col. Fremantle sleep to-night at the house of a blockaded rebel! Foster of the Staff, who conducted me in an ambulance to headquarters, which were at the house of the Roman Catholic bishop.

I was received there by Colonel Debray and two very gentlemanlike French priests. We sat down to dinner at 2 P. It appeared that immediately after I had left the cars, a semi drunken Texan of Pyron's regiment had desired this drayman to stop, and upon the latter declining to do so, the Texan fired five shots at him from his "six-shooter," and the last shot killed the drayman's horse.

Captain Foster who is a Louisianian, and very sarcastic about Texas said that the regiment would probably hang the soldier for being such a disgraceful bad shot. After dinner Colonel Debray took me into the observatory which commands a good view of the city, bay, and gulf. Galveston is situated near the eastern end of an island thirty miles long by three and a half wide.

Its houses are well built; its streets are long, straight, and shaded with trees; but the city was now desolate, blockaded, and under military law. Most of the houses are empty, and bore many marks of the ill-directed fire of the Federal ships during the night of the 1st of January last.

The whole of Galveston Bay is very shallow, except a narrow channel of about one hundred yards immediately in front of the now deserted wharves. The entrance to this channel is at the northeastern extremity of the island, and is defended by the new works which are now in progress there. It is also blocked up with piles, torpedoes, and other obstacles. The blockaders were plainly visible about four miles from land; they consisted of three gunboats and an ugly paddle steamer, also two supply vesels.

The wreck of the Confederate cotton-steamer Neptune destroyed in her attack on the Harriet Lane, was close off one of the wharves. In the night of the 1st January, General Magruder suddenly entered Galveston placed his field pieces along the line of wharves, and unexpectedly opened fire in the dark upon the Yankee Page 38 war vessels at a range of about one hundred yards; but so heavy, though badly directed was the reply from the ships, that the field pieces had to be withdrawn.

The attack by Colonel Cook upon a Massachusetts regiment fortified at the end of a wharf, also failed, and the Confederates thought themselves "badly whipped. General Magruder certainly deserves immense credit for his boldness in attacking a heavily armed naval squadron with a few field pieces and two river steamers protected with cotton bales and manned with Texan cavalry soldiers. These works have been ingeniously designed by Colonel Sulokowski, formerly in the Austrian army, and they were being very well constructed by one hundred and fifty whites and six hundred blacks under that officer's superintendence, the blacks being lent by the neighboring planters.

Although the blockaders can easily approach to within three miles of the works and although one shell will always "stampede" the negroes, yet they have not thrown any for a long time. All the negroes ran, showing every sign of great dismay, and two of them, in their terror, ran into the sea, and were unfortunately drowned. It is now, however, too late for the ships to try this experiment, as some heavy guns are in position. A description of the different works of course is omitted here.

Colonel Debray is a broad shouldered Frenchman, and is a very good fellow. He told me that he emigrated to America in he raised a company in , in which he was only a private; he was next appointed aid-de-camp to the Governor of Texas, with the rank of brigadier general; he then descended to a major of infantry, rose to a lieutenant colonel of cavalry, and is now colonel. Captain Foster is properly on Magruder's Staff, and is very good company.

His property at New Orleans had been destroyed by the Yankees. In the evening we went to a dance given by Colonel Manly which was great fun. I danced an American cotillon with Mrs. Manly; it was a very violent exercise, and not the least like any thing I had seen before. A gentleman stands by shouting out the different figures to be performed, and every one obeys his orders with much gravity and energy.

Colonel Manly is a very gentlemanlike Carolinian; the ladies were pretty, and considering the blockade, they were very well dressed. Six deserters from Page 39 Banks' army arrived here to-day. Banks seems to be advancing steadily, and overcoming the opposition offered by the handful of Confederates in the Teche country. Banks himself is much despised as a soldier, and is always called by the Confederates Mr. Commissary Banks, on account of the efficient manner in which he performed the duties of that office for "Stonewall" Jackson in Virginia.

The officer who is supposed really to command the advancing Federals is Weitzel; and he is acknowledged by all here to be an able man, a good soldier, and well acquainted with the country in which he is manoeuvring. This corps is now dismounted cavalry, and the procession was a droll one. First came eight or ten instruments braying discordantly, then an enormous Confederate flag, followed by about four hundred men moving by fours--dressed in every variety of costume, and armed with every variety of weapon; about sixty had Enfield rifles; the remainder carried shotguns fowling pieces, carbines, or long rifles of a peculiar and antiquated manufacture.

None had swords or bayonets--all had six shooters and bowie-knives. The men were a fine, determined looking lot; and I saw among them a short stout boy of fourteen, who had served through the Arizona campaign. I saw many of the soldiers take off their hats to the French priests, who seemed much respected in Galveston.

This regiment is considered down here to be a very good one, and its colonel is spoken as one of the bravest officers in the army. The regiment was to harrangued by Old Houston before it embarked. Many mounted regiments were therefore organized, and afterwards dismounted. In getting into the cars to return to Houston, I was nearly forced to step over the dead body of the horse shot by the soldier yesterday, and which the authorities had not thought necessary to remove.

I got back to General Scurry's house at Houston at P. Many were driving about in their master's carriages, or riding on horses which Page 40 are often lent to them on Sunday afternoons; all seemed intensely happy and satisfied with themselves. Colonel Ives, aid-de-camp to the President, has just arrived from Richmond, and he seems a very well informed and agreeable man. I have settled to take the route to Shrieveport to-morrow, as it seems doubtful whether Alexandria will or will not fall.

I made him a present of my evening clothes, which gratified him immensely; and I shook hands with him at parting, which seems to be quite the custom. The Southern gentlemen are certainly able to treat their slaves with extaordinary familiarity and kindness.

John told me that the General would let him buy his freedom whenever he chose. He is a barber by trade, and was earning much money when he insisted on rejoining his master and going to the wars. I left Houston by train for Navasoto at 10 A. A Captain Andrews accompanied me thus far: he was going with a troop of cavalry to impress one-fourth of the negroes on the plantations for the Government works at Galveston, the planters having been backward in coming forward with their darkies.

Arrived at Navasoto 70 miles at 4 P. I started at 4 30 P. It was the same sort of vehicle as the San Antonio one--eight people inside. During the night there was a thunderstorm. The Federal officers captured in the Harriet Lane are confined in the penitentiary there, and are not treated as prisoners of war. This seems to be the system now with regard to officers since the enlistment of negroes by the Northerners.

My fellow travelers were mostly elderly planters or legislators, and there was one judge from Louisiana. As the military element did not predominate, my companions united in speaking with horror of the depredations committed in this part of the country by their own troops on a line of march. We passed through a well-wooded country--pines and post-oaks Page 41 --the road bad: crossed the river Trinity at 12 noon, and dined at the house of a disreputable-looking individual, called a Campbellite minister, at 4.

The food consisted almost invariably of bacon, corn bread, and butter-milk: a meal costing a dollar. Arrived at Crockett at 9. A filthy bed was given to the Louisianian Judge and myself. The Judge, following my example, took to it boots and all, remarking, as he did so, to the attendant negro, that "they were a d--d sight cleaner than the bed.

Before reaching Crockett, we passed through the encampment of Phillipp's regiment of Texas Rangers, and we underwent much chaff. They were en route to resist Banks. The food which we get on the road is sufficient, and good enough to support life; it consists of pork or bacon, bread made with Indian corn, and a peculiar mixture called Confederate coffee, made of rye, meal, Indian corn, or sweet potatoes.

The loss of coffee afflicts the Confederates even more than the loss of spirits; and they exercise their ingenuity in devising substitutes, which are not generally very successful. The same sort of country as yesterday, viz. One of them was a Major , brother-in-law to , who hanged Montgomery at Brownsville. He spoke of the exploit of his relative with some pride. He told me that his three brothers had lost an arm apiece in the war.

We arrived at Rusk at 6. M, and spent a few hours there; but notwithstanding the boasted splendor of the beds at the Cherokee Hotel, and although by Major 's influence I got one to myself, yet I did not consider its aspect sufficiently inviting to induce me to remove my clothes.

Before the day broke we reached a bridge over a stream called Mud Creek, which was in such a dilapidated condition that all Page 42 hands had to get out and cover over the biggest holes with planks. The government agent informed us that he still held a commission as adjutant-general to -- The latter, it appears, is a cross between a guerilla and a horse thief, and, even by his adjutant-general's account, he seems to be an equal adept at both professions. The accounts of his forays in Arkansas were highly amusing, but rather strongly seasoned for a legitimate soldier.

The Judge was a very gentlemanlike nice old man. These often call the Confederates "graybacks. The Mississippi planter had abandoned his estate near Vicksburg, and withdrawn with the remnant of his slaves into Texas. The Judge also had lost all his property in New Orleans. In fact, every other man one meets has been more or less ruined since the war, but all speak of their losses with the greatest equanimity. Captain Williams was a tall, cadaverous backwoodsman, who had lost his health in the war.

He spoke of the Federal General Rosencrans with great respect, and he passed the following high encomium upon the Northwestern troops, under Rosencrans' command They don't want no running after,--they don't.

To my surprise all the party were willing to agree that, a few years ago, most educated men in the South regarded slavery as a misfortune and not justifiable, though necessary under the circumstances. But the meddling coercive conduct of the detested and despised abolitionists had caused the bonds to be drawn much tighter. My fellow-travelers of all classes are much given to talk to me about their "peculiar institution," and they are most anxious that I should see as much of it as possible, in order that I may be convinced that it is not so bad as has been represented, and that they are not all "Legrees," although they do not attempt to deny that there are many instances of cruelty.

But they say a man who is known to illtreat his negroes is hated by all the rest of the community. They declare that the Yankees make the worst masters when they settle in the South; and all seem to be perfectly aware that slavery, which they did not invent, but which they inherited Page 43 from us English, is and always will be the great bar to the sympathy of the civilized world. I have heard these words used over and over again. All the villages through which we passed were deserted except by women and very old men; their aspect was most melancholy.

The country is sandy and the land not fertile, but the timber is fine. We met several planters on the road, who with their families and negroes were taking refuge in Texas, after having abandoned their plantations in Louisiana on the approach of Banks. One of them had as many as sixty slaves with him of all ages and sizes. The Texans are certainly not prone to take offence where they see none is intended; for when this irruption took place, I couldn't help remarking to the Judge, with regard to the most obnoxious man who was occupying the centre seat to our mutual discomfort,--"I say, Judge, this gentleman has got the longest legs I ever saw.

Crossed the Sabine river at P. We then got into a railroad for sixteen miles, after which we were crammed into another stage. Crossed the frontier into Louisiana at 11 A. I have therefore been nearly a month getting through the single State of Texas. Reached Shreveport at 3 P. Kirby Smith, who commands the whole country on this side of the Mississippi.

He is only thirty-eight years old; and he owes his rapid rise to a lieutenant-general to the fortunate fact of his having fallen, just at the very nick of time, upon the Yankee flank at the first battle of Manassas. He is a remarkably active man, and of very agreeable manners; he wears big spectacles and a black beard. His wife is an extremely pretty woman, from Baltimore, but she had cut her hair quite short like a man's. In the evening she proposed that we should go down to the river and fish for crayfish.

We did so, and were most successful, the General displaying much energy on the occasion. He told me that M'Clellan might probably have destroyed the Southern army with the greatest ease during the first winter, and without running much risk to himself, as the Southerners were so much over-elated by their easy triumph at Manassas, and their army had dwindled away.

Governor Moore told me he had been on the Red River since , from which date until it had been very unheathy. He thinks that Dickens must have intended Shrieveport by "Eden. I have always understood Cairo was Eden. Governor Reynolds, of Missouri, told me he found himself in the unfortunate condition of a potentate exiled from his dominions; but he showed me an address which he had issued to his Missourians, promising to be with them at the head of an army to deliver them from their oppressors.

Shrieveport is rather a decent-looking place on the Red River. It contains about 3, inhabitants, and is at present the seat of the Louisiana Legislature vice Baton Rouge. But only twenty-eight members of the Lower House had arrived as yet, and business could not be commenced with less than fifty. The river now is broad and rapid, and it is navigated by large steamers; its banks are low and very fertile, but reputed to be very unhealthy,.

General Kirby Smith advised me to go to Munroe, and try to cross the Mississippi from thence; he was so uncertain as to Alexandria that he was afraid to send a steamer so far. My companions were, the Mississippi planter, a mad dentist from New Orleans, called by courtesy, doctor, an old man from Matagorda, buying slaves cheap in Louisiana, a wounded officer and a wounded soldier.

The soldier was a very intelligent young Missourian, who told me, as others have, that, at the commencement of these troubles, both he and his family were strong Unionists. But the Lincolnites, by using coercion, had forced them to take one side or the other --and there are now no more bitter Secessionists then these people.

This soldier, Mr. Douglas, was on his way to rejoin Bragg's Page 45 army. A Confederate soldier when wounded is not given his discharge, but is employed at such work as he is competent to perform. Douglas was quite lame; but will be employed at mounted duties or at writing. We passed several large and fertile plantations. The negro quarters formed little villages, and seemed comfortable: some of them held or hands.

We afterwards drove through some beautiful pine forests, and were ferried across a beautiful shallow lake full of cypresses, but not the least like the European cypress-trees. We met a number more planters driving their families, their slaves, and furniture, towards Texas--in fact, every thing that they could save from the ruin that had befallen them on the approach of the Federal troops.

I have at leugth become quite callous to many of the horrors of stage traveling. I no longer shrink at every random shower of tobacco-juice; nor do I shudder when good-naturedly offered a quid. I eat voraciously of the bacon that is provided for my sustenance, and I am invariably treated by my fellow-travelers of all grades with the greatest consideration and kindness.

Sometimes a man remarks that it is rather "mean" of England not to recognize the South; but I can always shut him up by saying, that a nation which deserves its independence should fight and earn it for itself--a sentiment which is invariably agreed to by all.

In the morning we received news from every one we met of the fall of Alexandria. The road to-day was alive with negroes, who are being "run" into Texas out of Bank's way. We must have met hundreds of them, and many families of planters, who were much to be pitied, especially the ladies.

On approaching Munroe, we passed through the camp of Walker's division 8, strong, which was on its march from Arkansas to meet Banks. The division had embarked in steamers, and had already started down the "Wachita" towards the Red River, when the news arrived of the fall of Alexandria, and of the presence of Federal gunboats in or near the Wachita itself.

This caused the precipitate return and disembarkation of Walker's division. The men were well armed with rifles and bayonets, but they were dressed Page 46 in ragged civilian clothes. The old Matagorda man recognized his son in one of these regiments--a perfect boy. Munroe is on the "Wachita," pronounced Washtaw, which is a very pretty and wide stream.

After crossing it we arrived at the hotel after dark. Universal confusion reigned there; it was full of officers and soldiers of Walker's division, and no person would take the slightest notice of us. In desperation I called on General Hebert, who commanded the post. I told him who I was, and gave him a letter of introduction, which I had fortunately brought from Kirby Smith.

I stated my hard case, and besought an asylum for the night, which he immediately accorded me in his own house. The difficulty of crossing the Mississippi appeared to increase the nearer I got to it, and General Hebert told me that it was very doubtful whether I could cross at all at this point.

The Yankee gunboats, which had forced their way past Vicksburg and Port Hudson, where roaming about the Mississippi and Red River, and some of them were reported at the entrance of the Wachita itself, a small fort at Harrisonburg being the only impediment to their appearance in front of Munroe. On another side, the enemy's forces were close to Delhi, only forty miles distant.

There were forty or fifty Yankee deserters here from the army besieging Vicksburg. These Yankee deserters, on being asked their reasons for deserting, generally reply--"Our government has broken faith with us. We enlisted to fight for the Union, and not to liberate the G--d d--d niggers [. The news of General Lee's victory at Chancellorsville had just arrived here.

Every one received it very coolly, and seemed to take it quite as a matter of course; but the wound of Stonewall Jackson was universally deplored. He was a West Pointer, and served in the old army, but afterwards became a wealthy sugar-planter. He used to hold Magruder's position as commander-in-chief in Texas, but he has now been shelved at Munroe, where he expects to be taken prisoner any day; and from the present gloomy aspect of affairs about here, it seems extremely probable that he will not be disappointed in his expectations.

Page 47 He is extremely down upon England for not recognizing the South [. Most people say they think we are quite right to keep out of it as long as we can; but others think our government is foolish to miss such a splendid chance of "smashing the Yankees," with whom we must have a row sooner or later. He gave me a passage down the river in a steamer, which was to try to take provisions to Harrisonburg; but, at the same time, he informed me that she might very probably be captured by a Yankee gunboat.

I embarked for Harrisonburg, which is distant from Munroe by water miles, and by land 75 miles. It is fortified, and offers what was considered a weak obstruction to the passage of the gunboats up the river to Munroe. The steamer was one of the curious American river boats, which rise to a tremendous height out of the water, like great wooden castles. She was steered from a box at the very top of all, and this particular one was propelled by one wheel at her stern.

The river is quite beautiful; it is from to yards broad, very deep and tortuous, and large trees grow right down to the very edge of the water. Our captain at starting expressed in very plain terms his extreme disgust at the expedition, and said he fully expected to run against a gunboat at any turn of the river. Soon after leaving Munroe, we passed a large plantation. The negro quarters were larger than a great many Texan towns, and they held three hundred hands.

After we had proceeded about half an hour, we were stopped by a mounted orderly, called a courier, who from the bank roared out the pleasing information, "They're a-fighting at Harrisonburg. One pleasant fellow, more warlike than the rest, suggested that as we had some Enfields on board, we should make a "little bit of a fight," or at least "make one butt at a gunboat. The plantations as we went further down the river, looked very prosperous; but signs of preparation for immediate skedadling Page 48 were visible in most of them, and I fear they are all destined to be soon desolate and destroyed.

We came to a courier picket every sixteen miles. At one of them we got the information, "Gunboats drove back," at which there was great rejoicing, and the captain recovering his spirts , became quite jocose, and volunteered to give me letters of introduction to a "particular friend of his about here, called Mr. Farragu;" but the next news, "Still a-fightin'," caused us to tie ourselves to a tree at 8 P. We then lit a large fire, round which all the passengers squatted on their heels in Texas fashion, each man whitling a piece of wood, and discussing the merits of the different Yankee prisons at New Orleans or Chicago.

One of them, seeing me, called out, "I reckon, Kernel, if the Yankees catch you with us, they'll say you're in d--d bad company;" which sally caused universal hilarity. They said they were "dreadful skeered;" and one of them told me he would "rather be a slave to his master all his life, than a white man and a soldier.

During the morning some of the officers and soldiers left the boat, and determined to cut across the country to Harrisonburg, but I would not abandon the scanty remains of my baggage until I was forced to do so. During the morning twelve more negroes arrived from Harrisonburg.

It appears that three hundred of them, the property of neighboring planters, had been engaged working on the fortifications, but they all with one accord bolted when the first shell was fired. Their only idea and hope at present seemed to be to get back to their masters.

All spoke of the Yankees with great detestation, and expressed wishes to have nothing to do with such "bad people. Our captain coolly employed them in tearing down the fences, and carrying the wood away on board the steamer for firewood. We did nothing but this all day long, the captain being afraid to go on, and unwilling to return.

In the evening a new alarm seized him--viz. During the night we remained in the same position as last night, head up stream, and ready to be off at a moment's notice. My trusty companion for several days, the poor young Missourian, was taken ill to-day, and told me he had a " right smart little fever on him" I doctored him with some of the physic which Mr.

Maloney had given me, and he got better in the evening. We had pickets out in the woods last night. Two of my fellow-travelers on that duty fell in with a negro, and pretending they were Yankees, asked him to join them. He consented, and even volunteered to steal his master's horses; and he then received a tremendous thrashing, administered by the two soldiers with their ramrods.

The further we went, the more beautiful was the scenery. After we had landed, I presented my letter of introduction from General Hebert to Colonel Logan, who commands the fort. He introduced me to a German officer, the engineer. They gave me an account of the attack and repulse of the four Federal gunboats under Commodore Woodford and supposed to have been the Pittsburg, ironclad, the General Price, the Arizona, and another.

Fort Beauregard is a much more formidable looking work than I expected to see, and its strength had evidently been much underrated at Munroe. A hill feet high, which rises just in rear of Harrisonburg, has been scarped and fortified. It is situated at an angle of the river, and faces a long "reach" of two miles. The gunboats after demanding an unconditional surrender, which was treated with great contempt by Colonel Logan, oponed fire at 2 P.

The gunboats reopened again for about an hour on Monday afternoon, when they finally withdrew, the Arizona being crippled. The fort fired altogether about forty-five pound shot, smooth bore. The range was about a mile. The garrison thought that they had loosened several of the Pittsburg's iron-plates. They felt confident that they could have sunk Page 50 the wooden vessels if they had attempted to force the passage; and they were naturally much elated with their success, which certainly had not been anticipated on board my steamer or at Munroe.

I had not time to visit the interior of the fort, but I saw the effect of the shell upon the outside. Those which fell in the sand did not burst. Only three men were wounded in the garrison. They told me the deck of the Pittsburg was furnished with a parapet of cotton bales for riflemen. The river at Harrisonburg is about yards broad, and very deep, with a moderate current.

The town being between the vessels and the fort, had, of course, suffered considerably during the bombardment. When the works are complete they will be much more formidable. To our great joy Colonel Logan decided that our vessel should proceed at once to Trinity, which is fifteen miles nearer Natchez, on the Mississippi, than Harrisonburg.

We arrived there at 8 P. Six of us pigged in one very small room, paying a dollar each for this luxury to an old woman, who was most inhospitable, and told us "she did'nt want to see no soldiers, as the Yanks would come back and burn her house for harboring rebels. As the Louisianian bank of the Mississippi is completely overflowed at this time of year, and the river itself is infested with the enemy's gunboats, which have run past Vicksburg and Port Hudson, the passage can only be made by a tedious journey in small boats through the swamps and bayous.

Our party left Trinity at 6 A. In my skiff were eight persons, besides a negro oarsman named "Tucker. This negro was a very powerful man, very vain, and susceptible of flattery. We kept him up to the mark throughout the journey by plying him Page 51 with compliments upon his strength and skill. One officer declared to him that he should try to marry his mistress a widow on purpose to own him. After beating up for about eight miles against one of three streams which unite at. The thicket was so tangled and impenetrable that we experienced the greatest difficulty in forcing our way through it; we were often obliged to get into the water up to our middles and shove, whilst most of the party walked along an embankment.

After two hours and a half of this sort of work we had to carry our boats bodily over the embankment into a bayou called Log Bayou, on account of the numerous floating logs which had to be encountered. We then crossed a large and beautiful lake, which led us into another dismal swamp, quite as tangled as the former one.

Here we lost our way, and got aground several times; but at length, after great exertions, we forced ourselves through it, and reached Lake Concordia, a fine piece of water, several miles in extent, and we were landed at dusk on the plantation of a Mr. These bayous and swamps abound with alligators and snakes of the most venomous description. I saw many of the latter swimming about exposed to a heavy fire of six-shooters; but the alligators were frightened away by the leading boat.

The yawl and one of the skiffs beat us, and their passengers reached Natchez about 9 P. The weather was most disagreeable, either a burning sun or a downpour of rain. The distance we did in the skiff was about twenty-eight miles, which took us eleven hours to perform.

On landing we hired at Mr. Davis's a small cart for Mr. Douglas the wounded Missourian and our baggage, and we had to finish the day by a trudge of three miles through deep mud, until, at length, we reached a place called Vidalia, which is on the Louisianian bank of the Mississippi, just opposite Natchez.

At Vidalia I got the immense luxury of a pretty good bed, all to myself, which enabled me to take off my clothes and boots for the first time in ten days. The landlord told us that three of the enemy's gunboats had passed during the day; and as he said their crews were often in the habit of landing at Vidalia, he cautioned the military to be ready to bolt into the woods at any time during the night.

There were two conscripts on board my skiff to-day, one an Irishman and the other a Pole. They confessed to me privately Page 52 their extreme dislike of the military profession; but at the same time they acknowledged the enthusiasm of the masses for the war.

Douglas and I crossed the father of rivers and landed on the Mississippi bank at 9 A. Natchez is a pretty little town, and ought to contain about 6, inhabitants. It is built on the top of a high bluff overlooking the Mississippi river, which is about three quarters of a mile broad at this point.

Haller Nutt, distant from the town about two miles. The scenery about Natchez is extremely pretty, and the ground is hilly, with plenty of fine trees. Nutt's place reminded me very much of an English gentleman's country seat, except that the house itself is rather like a pagoda, but it is beautifully furnished. Nutt was extremely civil, and was most anxious that I should remain at Natchez for a few days; but now that I was thoroughly wound up for traveling, I determined to push on to Vicksburg, as all the late news seemed to show that some great operations must take place there before long.

I had fondly imagined that after reaching Natchez my difficulties would have been over; but I very soon discovered that this was a delusive hope. I found that Natchez was full of the most gloomy rumors. Another Yankee raid seemed to have been made into the interior of Mississippi, more railroad is reported to be destroyed, and great doubts were expressed whether I should be able to get into Vicksburg at all.

My companions were a fat Government contractor from Texas, the wounded Missourian, Mr. Douglas, and an ugly woman, wife to a soldier in Vicksburg.

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