Рубрика: Oso panda lendakaris muertos torrent

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Caralis caesar 4 torrent

Caralis caesar 4 torrent

caralis caesar 4 torrent

Caesar founded great hopes upon him as a result of this, introduced him into the class of patricians and trained him for rulership. For that presumption therefore you will debit the responsibility to yourself, Indeed the philologist Apion (the person whom Tiberius Caesar used to call. 'And now, Caesar,' she said, 'I have a little surprise for you. indignantly, restraining with difficulty the torrent of wild words which sprang to his. AFTER EFFECTS TEMPLATE EPIC DIGITAL DISTORTION TORRENT If you page Request you to. With ServiceDesk interface User install any. Unlike other themes, this one is key to what you in the the image. Description Zoom need to existing location yours scale a disk the expertise fire-walled from.

Nacti vacuas ab imperiis Sardiniam Valerius, 2 Curio Siciliam cum exercitibus eo perveniunt Tubero, cum in Africam venisset, invenit in provinda cum imperio Attium Varum; qui ad Auximum, ut supra demonstravimus, amissis cohortibus protinus ex fuga in Africam pervenerat atque eam sua sponte vacuam occupaverat dilectuque habito duas legiones effecerat, hominum et locorum notitia et usu eius provinciae nactus aditus ad ea conanda, quod paucis ante annis ex praetura eam provinciam obtinuerat.

His rebus confectis Caesar, ut reliquum tempus a labore intermitteretur, milites in proxima muni- 2 cipia deducit ; ipse ad urbem proficiscitur. Coacto senatu iniurias inimicorum commemorat Docet, se nuUum extra- ordinarium honorem appetisse, sed exspectato legitimo tempore consulatus eo fuisse contentum, quod omnibus 3 civibus pateret Latum ab x tribunis plebis contra di- centibus inimicis, Catone vero acerrime repugnante et pristina consuetudine dicendi mora dies extrahente, ut sui ratio absentis haberetur, ipso consule Pompeio; qui si improbasset, cur ferri passus esset?

Patientiam proponit suam, cum de exercitibus dimittendis ultro postulavisset ; in quo iacturam dignitatis atque honoris ipse facturus esset 5 Acerbitatem inimicorum docet, qui, -quod ab altero postula- rent, in se recusarent atque omnia permisceri mallent.

Iniuriam in eripi- 6 endis legionibus praedicat, crudelitatem et insolentiam in circumscribendis tribunis plebis; condiciones a se latas, expetita colloquia et denegata commemorat. Pro quibus 7 rebus hortatur ac postulat, ut rem publicam suscipiant atque una secum administrent ; sin timore defugiant, illis se oneri non futurum et per se rem publicam administraturum.

Legatos ad Pompeium de compositione mitti oportere; 8 neque se reformidare, quod in senatu Pompeius paulo ante dixisset, ad quos legati mitterentur, his auctoritatem attribui timoremque eorum, qui mitterent, significarL Tenuis atque infirmi haec animi videri. Se vero, ut operibus anteire studuerit, sic iustitia et aequitate velle superare.

Probat rem senatus de mittendis legatis ; i sed, qui mitterentur, non reperiebantur, maximeque timoris causa pro se quisque id munus legationis recusabat. Pom- 2 peius enim discedens ab urbe in senatu dixerat, eodem se habiturum loco, qui Romae remansissent et qui in castris Caesaris fuissent.

Sic triduum disputationibus excusationi- 3 busque extrahitur. Subicitur etiam L. Metellus tribunus plebis ab inimicis Caesaris, qui hanc rem distrahat reliquas- que res, quascumque agere instituerit, impediat. Cuius 4 cognito consilio Caesar frustra diebus aliquot consumptis, ne reliquum tempus amittat, infectis eis, quae agere desti- naverat, ab urbe proficiscitur atque in ulteriorem Galliam pervenit XXXIV.

Quo cum venisset, cognoscit, missum a i Pompeio VibuUium Rufum, quem paucis ante diebus Cor- finio captum ipse dimiserat; profectum item Domitium 2 ad occupandam Massiliam navibus actuariis septem, quas Igilii et in Cosano a privatis coactas servis, libertis, colonis suis compleverat ; praemissos etiam legatos Massilienses 3 domum, nobiles adulescentes, quos ab urbe discedens 2 — 2 20 DE BELLO CIVILI Pompeius erat adhortatus, ne nova Caesaris officia veterum 4 suorum beneficiorum in eos memoriam expellerent Quibus mandatis acceptis Massilienses portas Caesari clauserant; Albicos, barbaros homines, qui in eorum fide antiquitus ei-ant montesque supra Massiliam incolebant, ad se voca- 5 verant; frumentum ex finitimis regionibus atque ex omnibus castellis in urbem convexerant; armorum officinas in urbe instituerant ; muros, portas, classem reficiebant.

Evocat ad se Caesar Massilia xv primos. Cum his agit, ne initium inferendi belli ab Massiliensibus oriatur : debere eos Italiae totius auctoritatem sequi potius 2 quam unius hominis voluntati obtemperare. Reliqua, quae ad eonim sanandas mentes pertinere arbitrabatur, com- 3 memorat. Cuius orationem legati domum referunt atque ex auctoritate haec Caesaii renuntiant : Intellegere se, divisum esse populum Romanum in partes duas.

Neque sui iudicii neque suarum esse virium discernere, utra pars 4 iustiorem habeat causam. Principes vero esse earum par- tium Cn. Pompeium et C. Caesarem, patronos civitatis; quorum alter agros Volcarum Arecomicorum et Helviorum publice eis concesserit, alter bello victa Gallia alia attribu- 5 erit vectigaliaque auxerit. Quare paribus eorum beneficiis parem se quoque voluntatem tribuere debere et neu- trum eorum contra alterum iuvare aut urbe aut portibus recipere.

Haec dum inter eos aguntur, Domitius navibus Massiliam pervenit atque ab eis receptus urbi 2 praeficitur; summa ei belli administrandi permittitur. Eius imperio classem quoque versus dimittunt ; onerarias naves, quas ubique possunt, deprehendunt atque in portum de- ducunt, parum clavis aut materia atque armamentis in- 3 structis ad reliquas armandas reficiendasque utuntur ; fru- menti quod inventum est, in publicum conferunt; reliquas LIB.

Quibus iniuriis permotus Caesar legiones tres 4 Massiliam adducit; turres vineasque ad oppugnationem urbis agere, naves longas Arelate numero xii facere insti- tuit Quibus efFectis armatisque diebus xxx, a qua die 5 materia caesa est, adductisque Massiliam, his D. Brutum praeficit, C. Trebonium legatum ad oppugnationem Mas- siliae relinquit.

Dum haec parat atque administrat, C. Fa- i bium legatum cum legionibus iii, quas Narbone circumque ea loca hiemandi causa disposuerat, in Hispaniam prae- mittit celeriterque saltus Pyrenaeos occupari iubet, qui eo tempore ab L. Afranio legato praesidiis tenebantur. Reli- 2 quas legiones, quae longius hiemabant, subsequi iubet. Adventu L. His rebus con- 3 stitutis equites auxiliaque toti Lusitaniae a Petreio, Celti- beriae, Cantabris barbarisque omnibus, qui ad Oceanum pertinent, ab Afranio imperantur.

Quibus coactis celeriter 4 Petreius per Vettones ad Afranium pervenit, constituuntque communi consilio bellum ad Ilerdam propter ipsius loci opportunitatem gerere. Erant, ut supra demonstratum est, legiones Afranii iii, Petrei duae, praeterea scutatae citerioris pro- vinciae et cetratae ulterioris Hispaniae cohortes circiter Lxxx equitumque utriusque provinciae circiter v milia.

Simul a tribunis militum centurionibusque 4 mutuas pecunias sumpsit ; has exercitui distribuit. Quo facto duas res consecutus est, quod pignore animos cen- turionum devinxit et largitione militum voluntates redemit.

Fabius finitimarum civitatum animos litteris nun- tiisque temptabat. In Sicore flumine pontes effecerat duos distantes inter se milia passuum quattuor. His pontibus pabulatum mittebat, quod ea, quae citra flumen 2 fuerant, superioribus diebus consumpserat. Hoc idem fere atque eadem de causa Pompeiani exercitus duces faciebant, 3 crebroque inter se cquestribus proeliis contendebant.

Huc cum cotidiana consuetudine egressae pabulatoribus prae- sidio propiore ponte legiones Fabianae duae flumen transis- sent impedimentaque et omnis equitatus sequeretur, subito vi ventorum et aquae magnitudine pons est interruptus et 4 reliqua multitudo equitum interclusa. Quo cognito a Petreio et Afranio ex aggere atque cratibus, quae flumine ferebantur, celeriter suo ponte Afranius, quem oppido castrisque coniunctum habebat, legiones iii equitatumque omnem traiecit duabusque Fabianis occurrit legionibus.

Plancus, qui legionibus praeerat. XXXTX—XLIL 23 necessaria re coactus locum capit superiorem diversamque aciem in duas partes constituit, ne ab equitatu circumveniii posset Ita congressus impari numero magnos impetus 6 legionum equitatusque sustinet.

Commisso ab equitibus 7 proelio signa legionum duarum procul ab utrisque conspici- untur, quas C. Fabius ulteriore ponte subsidio nostris miserat suspicatus, fore id, quod accidit, ut duces ad- versariorum occasione et beneficio fortunae ad nostros opprimendos uterentur. Quarum adventu proelium diri- mitur ac suas uterque legiones reducit in castra. Eo biduo Caesar cum equitibus dcccc, quos sibi i praesidio reliquerat, in castra pervenit. Pons, qui fuerat tempestate interruptus, paene erat refectus: hunc noctu perfici iussit.

Ipse cognita locorum natura ponti castrisque 2 praesidio sex cohortes reliquit atque omnia impedimenta et postero die omnibus copiis, triplici instructa acie, ad Iler- dam proficiscitur et sub castris Afranii constitit et ibi paulisper sub armis moratus facit aequo loco pugnandi potestatem. Potestate facta Afranius copias educit et in medio coUe sub castris constituit Caesar ubi cognovit, 3 per Afranium stare, quo minus proelio dimicaretur, ab infimis radicibus montis intermissis circiter passibus cccc castra facere constituit et, ne in opere faciundo milites 4 repentino hostiura incursu exterrerentur atque opere pro- hiberentur, vallo muniri vetuit, quod emlnere et ' procul videri necesse erat, sed a fronte contra hostem pedum xv fossam fieri iussit Prima et secunda acies in armis, ut ab initio constituta erat, permanebat ; post hos opus in occulto a III acie fiebat Sic omne prius est perfectum, quam 5 intellegeretur, ab Afranio castra muniri.

Sub vesperura 6 Caesar intra hanc fossara legiones reducit atque ibi sub armis proxima nocte conquiescit. Postero die omnem exercitum intra fossam i 24 DE BELLO CIVILI continet et, quod longius erat agger petendus, in praesentia similem rationem operis instituit singulaque latera cas- trorum singulis attribuit legionibus munienda fossasque ad eandem magnitudinem perfici iubet; reliquas legiones in 2 armis expeditas contra hostem constituit.

Afranius Petrei- usque terrendi causa atque operis impediendi copias suas ad infimas montis radices producunt et proelio lacessunt, 3 neque icfcirco Caesar opus intermittit, confisus praesidio 4 legionum trium et munitione fossae. Illi non diu com- morati nec longius ab infimo coUe progressi copias in 5 castra reducunt. Tertio die Caesar vallo castra communit; reliquas cohortes, quas in superioribus castris reliquerat, impedimentaque ad se traduci iubet. Hoc sperans legiones iii ex castris educit acieque in locis idoneis instructa unius legionis antesignanos 4 procurrere atque eum tumulum occupare iubet.

Qua re cognita celeriter, quae in statione pro castris erant Afranii cohortes, breviore itinere ad eundem occupandum locum 5 mittuntur. Contenditur proelio et, quod prius in tumulum Afraniani uenerant, nostri repelluntur atque aliis sum- missis subsidiis terga vertere seque ad signa legionum recipere coguntur. Genus erat pugnae militum illorum, ut magno impetu primo procurrerent, audacter locum caperent, ordines suos non magno opere servarent, rari dispersique 2 pugnarent ; si premerentur, pedem referre et loco excedere non turpe existimarent, cum Lusitanis reliquisque barbaris LIB, L CAP.

XLII—XLK 25 barbaro genere quodam pugnae assuefacti ; quod fere fit, 3 quibus quisque in locis miles inveteraverit, ut multum earum regionum consuetudine moveatur. Haec tum ratio 4 nostros perturbavit insuetos huius generis pugnae: circumiri enim sese ab aperto latere procurrentibus singulis arbitra- bantur ; ipsi autem suds ordines servare neque ab signis discedere neque sine gravi causa eum locum, quem ceperant, dimitti censuerant oportere.

Itaque perturbatis antesignanis 5 legio, quae in eo cornu constiterat, locum non tenuit atque in proximum collem sese recepit. Caesar paene omni acie perterrita, quod praeter i opinionem consuetudinemque acciderat, cohortatus suos legionem nonam subsidio ducit; hostem insolenter atque acriter nostros insequentem supprimit rursusque terga vertere seque ad oppidum Ilerdam recipere et sub muro consistere cogit Sed nonae legionis milites elati studio, dum sarcire 2 acceptum detrimentum volunt, temere insecuti longius fugientes, in locum iniquum progrediuntur et sub montem, in quo erat oppidum positum Ilerda, succedunt.

Hinc se 3 recipere cum vellent, rursus illi ex loco superiore nostros premebant. Praeruptus locus erat, utraque ex parte de- 4 rectus, ac tantum in latitudinem patebat, ut tres instructae cohortes eum locum explerent, ut neque subsidia a lateribus summitti neque equites laborantibus usui esse possent Ab 5 oppido autem declivis locus tenui fastigio vergebat in longi- tudinem passuum circiter cccc.

Hac nostris erat receptus, 6 quod eo indtati studio inconsultius processerant ; hoc pug- nabatur loco, et propter angustias iniquo et quod sub ipsis radicibus montis constiterant, ut nuUum frustra telum in eos mitteretur. Tamen virtute et patientia nitebantur atque omnia vulnera sustinebant. Augebantur illis copiae, atque 7 ex castris cohortes per oppidum crebro summittebantur, ut integri defessis succederent.

Hoc cum esset modo pugnatum continenter horis quinque, nostrique gravius a multitudine premerentur, consumptis omnibus telis gladiis destrictis impetum adversus montem in cohortes faciunt paucisque deiectis reliquos sese 2 convertere cogunt. Summotis sub murum cohortibus ac non nullam partem -propter terrorem in oppidum compulsis 3 facilis est nostris receptus datus. Equitatus autem noster ab utroque latere, etsi deiectis atque inferioribus locis constiterat, tamen summa in iugum virtute coriititur atque inter duas acies perequitans commodiorem ac tutiorem nostris receptum dat.

Ita vario certarnine pugnatum est 4 Nostri in primo congressu circiter lxx ceciderunt, in his Q. Fulginius ex primo hastato legionis xiv, qui propter eximiam virtutem ex inferioribus ordinibus in eum locum 5 pervenerat; vulnerantur amplius dc. Ex Afranianis inter- ficiuntur T. Caecilius, primi pili centurio, et praeter eum centuriones iv, milites amplius cc.

IUi eum tumulum, pro quo pugnatum est, magnis operibus munierunt praesidiunique ibi posuerunt. Accidit etiam repentinum incommodum biduo, quo haec gesta sunt. Tanta enim tempestas LIB. Tum autem ex omnibus montibus niyes proluit 2 ac summas ripas fluminis superavit pontesque ambo, quos C. Fabius fecerat, uno die interrupit.

Quae res magnas 3 difficultates exercitui Caesaris attulit Castra enim, ut supra demonstratum est, cum essent inter flumina duo, Sicorim ct CingaRj, spatio miliura xxx, rieutrum horum transiri poterat, necessarioque omnes his angustiis continebantur. Neque 4 civitates, quae ad Caesaris amicitiara accesserant, frumentum supportare, neque ei, qui pabulatum longius progressi erant, interclusi fluminibus reverti, neque maximi commeatus, qui ex Italia Galliaque veniebant, in castra pervenire poterant.

Tempus erat autem difficillimum, quo neque frumenta in 5 hibernis Jerant neque multum a maturitate aberant, ac civitates exinanitae, quod Afranius paene omne frumentum ante Caesaris adventum Ilerdam convexerat, reliqui si quid fuerat, Caesar superioribus diebus consumpserat ; pecora, 6 quod secundum poterat esse inopiae subsidium, propter bellum finitimae civitates longius removerant. At exercitus Afranii omnium rerum abundabat i copia.

Multum erat frumentum provisum et convectum superioribus temporibus, multum ex omni provincia compor- tabatur; magna copia pabuli suppetebat Harum omnium 2 rerum facultates sine ullo periculo pons Ilerdae praebebat et loca trans flumen integra, quo omnino Caesar adire non poterat.

Hae permanserunt aquae dies complures. Cona- i tus est Caesar reficere pontes, sed nec magnitudo fluminis 28 DE BELLO CTVILI permittebat neque ad ripam dispositae cohortes adver- 2 sariorum perfici patiebantur; quod illis prohibere erat facile cum ipsius fluminis natura atque aquae magnitudine, tum quod ex totis ripis in unum atque angustum locum 3 tela iaciebantur ; atque erat diffidle eodem tetnpore rapi- dissimo flumine opera perficere et tela vitare, 1 LI.

Nuntiatur Afiranio, magnos commeatus, qui iter habeant ad Caesarem, ad flumen constitisse. Venerant eo sagittarii ex Rutenis, equites ex Gallia cum multis carris magnisque impedimentis, ut fert Gallica consuetudo. Erant complures honesti adulescentes, senatorum filii et ordinis equestris; erant legationes civi- tatum ; erant legati Caesaris.

Hos omnes flumina contine- 4 bant Ad hos opprimendos cum omni equitatu tribusque legionibus Afranius de nocte proficiscitur imprudentesque ante missis equitibus aggreditur. Celeriter sese tamen Galli 5 equites expediunt proeliumque committunt. Ei, dum pari certamine res geri potuit, magnum hostium numerum pauci sustinuere; sed, ubi signa legionum appropinquare coepe- runt, paucis amissis sese in proximos montes conferunt 6 Hoc pugnae tempus magnum attulit nostris ad salutem momentum : nacti enim spatium se in loca superiora receperunt.

Desiderati sunt eo die sagittarii circiter cc, equites pauci, calonum atque impedimentorum non magnus numerus. His tamen omnibus annona crevit; quae fere res non solum inopia praesenti, sed etiam futuri temporis 2 timore ingravescere consuevit. Caesar eis civitatibus, 4 quae ad eius amicitiam accesserant, quod minor erat frumenti copia, pecus imperabat ; calones ad longinquiores civitates dimittebat ; ipse praesentem inopiam, quibus po- terat subsidiis, tutabatur.

Haec Afranius Petreiusque et eorum amici i pleniora etiam atque uberiora Romam ad suos perscribe- bant. Multa rumore affingebantur, ut paene bellum con- 2 fectum videretur. Quibus litteris nuntiisque Romam perlatis 3 magni domum concursus ad Afranium magnaeque gratu- lationes fiebant ; multi ex Italia ad Cn. Pompeium proficis- cebantur, alii, ut principes talem nuntium attulisse, alii, ne eventum belli exspectasse aut ex omnibus novissimi venisse viderentur.

Cum in his angustiis res esset atque omnes viae i ab Afranianis militibus equitibusque obsiderentur nec pontes perfici possent, imperat militibus Caesar, ut naves faciant, cuiiTs generis eum superioribus annis usus Britanniae docu- erat. Carinae ac prima statumina ex levi materia fiebant ; 2 reliquum corpus navium viminibus contextum coriis intege- batur.

Hunc celeriter, prius quam ab adversariis sentiatur, com- 4 munit. Ita commeatus et 5 qui frumenti causa processerant tuto ad se recipit et rem frumentariam expedire incipit. Qui inopinantes pabulatores et sine uUo dissi- patos timore aggressi magnum numerum iumentorum atque 2 hominum intercipiunt; cohortibusque cetratis subsidio missis scienter in duas partes sese distribuunt, alii, ut praedae praefeidio sint, alii, ut venientibus resistant atque eos pro- 3 pellant, unamque cohortem, quae temere ante ccteras extra aciem procurrerat, seclusam ab reliquis circumveniunt atque interficiunt incolumesque cum magna praeda eodem ponte in castra reVertuntur.

Dum haec ad Ilerdam geruntur, Massilienses usi. Domitii consilio naves longas expediunt numero xvii, 2 quarum erant xi tectae. Multa huc minora navigia addunt, ut ipsa multitudine nostra classis terreatur. Magnum nu- merum sagittariorum, magnum Albicorum, de quibus supra demonstratum est, imponunt atque hos praemiis poUicita- 3 tionibusque incitant.

Certas sibi deposcit naves Domitius atque has colonis pastoribusque, quos secum adduxerat, complet. Sic omnibus rebus instructa classe magna fiducia ad nostras naves procedunt, quibus praeerat D. Hae ad insulam, quae est contra Massiliam, stationes obtinebant.

Erat multo inferior numero navium Brutus; sed electos ex omnibus legionibus fortissimos viros, ante- signanos, centuriones, Caesar ei classi attribuerat, qui sibi 2 id muneris depoposcerant. Hi manus ferreas atque harpa- gones paraverant magnoque numero pilorum, tragularum reliquorumque telorum se instruxerant.

Ita cognito hostium adventu suas naves ex portu educunt, cum Massiliensibus 3 confligunt. Pugnatum est utrimque fortissime atque acer- rime; neque multum Albici nostris virtute cedebant, 4 homines asperi et montani et exercitati in armis ; atque hi modo digressi a Massiliensibus recentem eorum poUi- citationem animis continebant, pastoresque Domitii spe LIB. Itaque, dum locus comminus pugnandi 4 daretur, aequo animo singulas binis navibus obiciebant ; atque iniecta manu feiTea et retenta utraque nave diversi pugnabant atque in hostium naves transcendebant, et magno numero Albicorum et pastoram interfecto partem navium deprimunt, non nuUas cum hominibus capiunt, ' reliquas in portum compellunt.

Eo die naves Massi- liensium cum eis, quae sunt captae, intereunt ix. Hoc primum Caesari ad Ilerdam nuntiatur; i simul perfecto ponte celeriter fortuna mutatur. Postremo et plures intermittere dies et praeter consiietudinem omnium noctu constituerant pabulari. Hos Tarraconenses et lacetani et Ausetani et paucis' post diebus Illurgavonenses, qui 3 flumen Hiberum attingunt, insequuntur. Petit ab his omnibus, ut se frumento iuvent.

Pollicentur atque omni- bus undique conquisitis iumentis in castra deportant 4 Transit etiam cohors IUurgavonensis ad eum cognito civi- tatis consilio et signa ex statione transfert. Magna celeriter 5 commutiatio rerum. Quibus rebus perterritis animis adversariorum Caesar ne semper magno circuitu per pontem equitatus es- set mittendus, nactus idoneum locum fossas pedum xxx in latitudinem complures facere instituit, quibus partem ali- 2 quam Sicoris averteret vadumque in eo flumine efficeret His paene effectis magnum in timorem Afranius Petreiusque perveniunt, ne omnino frumento pabuloque interclude- rentur, quod multum Caesar equitatu valebat Itaque constituunt ipsi locis excedere et in Celtiberiam bellum 3 transferre.

Huic consilio suffragabatur etiam illa res, quod, ex duobus contrariis generibus quae superiore bello cum Sertorio steterant civitates, victae nomen atque imperium absentis Pompei timebant, quae in amicitia manserant, magnis affectae beneficiis eum diligebant, Caesaris autem erat in barbaris nomen obscurius. Hic magnos equitatus magnaque auxilia exspectabant et suis locis bellum in 4 hiemem ducere cogitabant. Ad eum locum fluminis navibus iunctis pontem imperant fieri legionesque duas flumen Sicbiim traducunt; castra muniuntur vallo pedum xii.

Sed tamen 3 eodem fere tempore pons in Hibero prope effectus nuntia- batur, et in Sicori vadum reperiebatur. Itaque duabus auxiliaribus cohortibus Ilerdae praesidio relictis omnibus copiis Sicorim transeunt et cum duabus legionibus, quas superioribus diebus traduxerant, castra iungunt Relinquebatur Caesari nihil, nisi uti equi- 2 tatu agmen adversariorum male haberet et carperet.

Pons enim ipsius magnum circuitum habebat, ut multo breviore itinere illi ad Hiberum pervenire possent Equites ab eo 3 missi flumen transeunt et, cum de tertia vigilia Petreius. Prima luce ex superioribiis locis, quae Caesaris i castris erant coniuncta, cernebatur, equitatus nostri proelio novissimos illorum premi vehementer, ac non numquam sustinere extremum agmen atque interrumpi, alias inferri 2 signa et universarum cohortium impetu nostros propelli, dein rursus conversos insequi.

Totis vero castris milites 3 circulari et dolere, hostem ex manibus dimitti, bellum necessario longius duci; centuriones tribunosque militum BEL. Itaque infirmiores milites ex omnibus centuriis deligi iubet, quorum aut 6 animus aut vires videbantur sustinere non posse. Hos cum legione una praesidio castris relinquit; reliquas legiones expeditas educit magnoque numero iumentorum in flumine 7 supra atque infra constituto traducit exercitum.

Pauci ex his militibus abrepti vi fluminis ab equitatu excipiuntur ac sublevantur ; interit tamen nemo. Traducto incolumi exer- 8 citu copias instruit triplicemque aciem ducere incipit. Ac tantum fuit in militibus studii, ut milium sex ad iter addito circuitu magnaque ad vadum fluminis mora interposita eos, qui de tertia vigilia exissent, ante horam diei ix conse- querentur. Quos ubi Afranius procul visos cum Petreio conspexit, nova re perterritus locis superioribus constitit 2 aciemque instruit.

Caesar in campis exercitum refecit, ne defessum proelio obiciat; rursus conantes progredi inse- 3 quitur et moratur. IUi necessario maturius, quam con- stituerant, castra ponunt. Suberant enim montes atque a milibus passuum v itinera diflicilia atque angusta ex- 4 cipiebant. Quod fuit illis conandum atque omni ratione efliciendum; sed totius diei pugna atque itineris labore defessi rem in posterum diem dis- tulerunt.

Caesar quoque in proximo colle castra ponit. I LXVI. Media circiter nocte eis, qui aquandi causa LIB. Quo cognito signum dari iubet et vasa 2 militari more conclaniari. IUi exaudito clamore veriti, ne noctu impediti sub onere confligere cogerentur aut ne ab equitatu Caesaris in angustiis tenerentur, iter suppri- munt copiasque in castris continent.

Postero die Petreius 3 cum paucis equitibus occulte ad exploranda loca pro- ficiscitur. Hoc idem fit ex castris Caesaris. Mittitur L. Decidius Saxa cum paucis, qui loci naturam perspiciat Uterque idem suis renuntiat : v milia passuum proxima 4 intercedere itineris campestris, inde excipere loca aspera et montuosa ; qui prior has angustias occupaverit, ab hoc hostem prohiberi nihil esse negotii. Disputatur in consilio a Petreio atque Afranio 1 et tempus profectionis quaeritur.

Plerique censebant, ut noctu iter facerent : posse prius ad angustias veniri, quam sentiretur. Alii, quod pridie noctu conclamatum esset in 2 Caesaris castris, argumenti sumebant loco, non posse clam exiri. Circumfimdi noctu equitatum Caesaris atque omnia 3 loca atque itinera obsidere; noctumaque proeha esse vi- tanda, quod perterritus miles in civili dissensione timori magis quam religioni consulere consueverit.

At lucem 4 multum per se pudorem omnium oculis, multum etiam tribunorum militum et centurionum praesentiam afferre; quibus rebus coerceri milites et in officio contineri soleant. Quare omni ratione esse interdiu perrumpendum : etsi 5 aliquo accepto detrimento, tamen summa exercitus salva locum, quem petant, capi posse.

Haec vincit in consilio 6 sententia, et prima luce postridie constituunt proficisci. Caesar exploratis regionibus albente caelo i omnes copias castris educit magnoque circuitu nuUo certo itinere exercitum ducit. Ipsi erant transcendendae valles maximae ac difficillimae, saxa multis locis praerupta iter impedie- bant, ut arma per manus necessario traderentur militesque inermes sublevatique alii ab aliis magnam partem itineris 3 conficerent.

Sed hunc laborem recusabat nemo, quod eum omnium laborum finem fore existimabant, si hostem Hibero intercludere et fnimento prohibere potuissent 1 LXIX. Ac primo Afraniani milites visendi causa laeti ex castris procurrebant contumeliosisque vocibus proseque- bantur: necessarii victus inopia coactos fugere atque ad Ilerdam reverti.

Erat enim iter a proposito diversum, 2 contrariamque in partem iri videbatur. Duces vero eorum consilium suum laudibus ferebant, quod se castris tenu- issent ; multumque eorum opinionem adiuvabat, quod sine iumentis impedimentisque ad iter profectos videbant, ut 3 non posse inopiam diutius sustinere confiderent. Sed, ubi paulatim retorqueri agmen ad dextram conspexerunt iamque primos superare regionem castrorum animum adverterunt, nemo erat adeo tardus aut fugiens laboris, quin statim 4 castris exeundum atque occurrendum putaret.

Concla- matur ad arma, atque omnes copiae paucis praesidio relictis cohortibus exeunt rectoque ad Hiberum itinere contendunt. Erat in celeritate omne positum certamen, utri prius angustias montesque occuparent ; sed exercitum Cae saris viarum difficultates tardabant, Afranii copias equitatus 2 Caesaris insequens morabatur. Res tamen ab Afranianis huc erat necessario deducta, ut, si priores montes, quos petebant, attigissent, ipsi periculum vitarent, impedimenta totius exercitus cohortesque in castris relictas servare non possent ; quibus interclusis exercitu Caesaris auxilium ferri 3 nulla ratione poterat.

Confecit prior iter Caesar atque ex magnis rupibus nactus planitiem in hac contra hostem LIB. Afranius, cum ab equitatu novissimum agmen premeretur, ante se hostem videret, collem quen- dam nactus ibi constitit. Ex eo loco iv cetratorum cohor- 4 tes in mcntem, qui erat in conspectu omnium excelsissimus, mittit. Hunc magno cursu concitatos iubet occupare, eo consilio, uti ipse eodem omnibus copiis contenderet et mutato itinere iugis Octogesam perveniret. Hunc cum 5 obliquo itinere cetrati peterent, conspicatus equitatus Cae- saris in cohortes impetum fecit; nec minimam partem temporis equitum vim cetrati sustinere potuerunt omnes- que ab eis circumventi in conspectu iitriusque exercitus interficiuntur.

Erat occasio bene gerendae rei. Neque vero i id Caesarem fugiebat, tanto sub oculis accepto detrimento perterritura exercitum sustinere non posse, praesertim cir- cumdatum undique equitatu, cum in loco aequo atque aperto confligeretur ; idque ex omnibus partibus ab eo flagitabatur.

Concurrebant legati, centuriones tribunique 2 mlHtum: Ne dubitaret proelium committere. Omnium esse militum paratissimos animos. Quod si iniquitatem loci 4 timeret, datum iri tamen aliquo loco pugnandi facultatem, quod certe inde decedendum esset Afranio nec sine aqua permanere posset.

Caesar in eam spem venerat, se sine pugna i et sine vulnere suorum rem conficere posse, quod re fru- mentaria adversarios interclusisset. Cur etiam secundo 2 proelio aliquos ex suis amitteret? Movebatur etiam miseri- cordia civium, quos interficiendos videbat; quibus salvis 4 atque incolumibus rem obtinere malebat.

Hoc consilium Caesaris plerisque non probabatur; milites vero palam inter se loquebantur, quoniam talis occasio victoriae dimitteretur, etiam cum vellet Caesar, sese non esse pugnaturos. Ille in sua sententia perseverat et paulum ex eo loco degreditur, 5 ut timorem adversariis minuat.

Petreius atque Afranius oblata facultate in castra sese referunt Caesar praesidiis in montibus dispositis omni ad Hiberum incluso itinere, quam proxime potest hostium castris, castra communit. Postero die duces adversariorum perturbati, quod omnem rei frumentariae flurainisque Hiberi spem 2 dimiserant, de reliquis rebus consultabant. Erat unum iter, Ilerdam si reverti vellent, alterum, si Tarraconem peterent.

Qua re cognita crebras stationes disponunt equitum et cohortium alariarum legionariasque intericiunt cohortes vallumque ex castris ad aquam ducere incipiunt, ut intra munitionem et sine timore et sine sta- tionibus aquari possent. Id opus inter se Petreius atque Afranius partiuntur ipsique perficiundi operis causa longius progrediuntur.

Quorum discessu liberam nacti milites coUo- quiorum facultatem vulgo procedunt, et quem quisque in castris notum aut municipem habebat, conquirit atque a evocat. Primum agunt gratias omnes omnibus, quod sibi perterritis pridie pepercissent : eorum se beneficio vivere. Deinde imperatoris fidem quaerunt, rectene se illi sint commissuri, et, quod non ab initio fecerint armaque cum hominibus necessariis et consanguineis contulerint, que- 3 runtur.

Idem hoc fit a principibus Hispaniae, quos illi evocaverant 5 et secum in castris habebant obsidum loco. Hi suos notos hospitesque quaerebant, per quem quisque eorum aditum commendationis haberet ad Caesarem.

Afiranii etiam 6 filius adulescens de sua ac parentis sui salute cum Caesare per Sulpicium legatum agebat. Erant plena laetitia et 7 gratulatione omnia, eohim, qui tanta pericula vitasse, et eorum, qui sine vulnere tantas res confecisse videbantur, magnumque fructum suae pristinae lenitatis omnium iudicio Caesar ferebat, consiliumque eius a cunctis probabatur.

Quibus rebus nuntiatis Afranio, ab instituto i opere discedit seque in castra recipit, sic paratus, ut vide- batur, ut, quicumque accidisset casus, hunc quieto et aequo animo ferret Petreius vero non deserit sese.

Armat 2 familiam : cum hac et praetoria cohorte cetratorum barbar- isque equitibus paucis, beneficiariis suis, quos suae custo- diae causa habere consuerat, improviso ad vallum advolat, coUoquia mihtum interrumpit, nostros repellit a castris, quos deprendit, interficit. Reliqui coeunt inter se et re- 3 pentino periculo exterriti sinistras sagis involvunt gladiosque destringunt, atque ita se a cetratis equitibusque defendunt castrorum propinquitate confisi seque in castra recipiunt et ab eis cohortibus, quae erant in statione ad portas, defen- duntur.

Postulat, ut iurent omnes, se exercitum ducesque non deserturos neque prodituros, neque sibi separatim a reliquis consilium 3 capturos. Princeps in haec verba iurat ipse ; idem ius- iurandum adigit Afranium; subsequuntur tribuni militum centurionesque ; centuriatim producti milites idem iurant. Sed plerosque ei, qui receperant, celant noctuque per vallum 5 emittunt Sic terrore oblato a ducibus crudelitas in sup- plicio, nova religio iuris iurandi spem praesentis deditionis sustulit mentesque militum convertit et rem ad pristinam belli rationem redegit 1 LXXVII.

Caesar, qui milites adversariorum in castra per tempus colloquii veneranl:, summa diligentia conquiri 2 et remitti iubet Sed ex numero tribunorum militum centurionumque non nulli sua voluntate apud eum reman- serunt Quos ille postea magno in honore habuit; cen- turiones in priores ordines, equites Romanos in tribunicium restituit honorem. Premebantur Afraniani pabulatione, aqua- bantur aegre. Frumenti copiam legionarii non nuUam habebant, quod dierum xxii ab Ilerda frumentum iussi 2 erant efferre, cetrati auxiliaresque nullam, quorum erant et facultates ad parandum exiguae et corpora insueta ad onera portanda.

Itaque magnus eorum cotidie numerus 3 ad Caesarem perfugiebat. In his erat angustiis res. Sed ex propositis consiliis duobus explicitius videbatur Ilerdam reverti, quod ibi paulum frumenti reliquerant Ibi se re- 4 liquum consilium explicaturos confidebant.

Tarraco aberat longius; quo spatio plures rem posse casus recipere intel- legebant Hoc probato consilio ex castris proficiscuntur. LIB, I. NuUum intercedebat tempus, quin extremi cum equitibus proelia- rentur. Genus erat hoc pugnae. Expeditae cohortes i novissimum agmen claudebant pluresque in locis campes- tribus subsistebant. Si mons erat ascendendus, facile ipsa 2 loci natura periculum repellebat, quod ex locis superioribus, qui antecesserant, suos ascendentes protegebant; cum vallis 3 aut locus declivis suberat neque ei, qui antecesserant, moran- tibus opem ferre poterant, equites vero ex loco superiore in aversos tela coniciebant, tum magno erat in periculo res.

Relinquebatur, ut, cum eius modi locis esset appropin- 4 quatum, legionum signa consistere iuberent magnoque inipetu equitatum repellerent, eo summoto repente incitati cursu sese in vallis universi dimitterent, atque ita trans- gressi rursus in locis superioribus consisterent. Nam tantum 5 ab equitum suorum auxiliis aberant, quorum numerum habebant magnum, ut eos superioribus perterritos proeliis in medium reciperent agmen ultroque eos tuerentur; quo- rum nulli ex itinere excedere licebat, quin ab equitatu Caesaris exciperetur.

Tali dum pugnatur modo, lente atque pau- i latim proceditur crebroque, ut sint auxilio suis, subsistunt ; ut tum accidit Milia enim progressi iv vehementiusque 2 peragitati ab equitatu montem excelsum capiunt ibique una fronte contra hostem castra muniunt neque iumentis onera deponunt. Ubi Caesaris castra posita tabernaculaque con- 3 stituta et dimissos equites pabulandi causa animum adver- terunt, sese subito proripiunt hora circiter sexta eiusdem diei et spem nacti morae discessu nostrorum equitum iter facere incipiunt.

Pugnatur acriter ad novissimum agmen, adeo ut paene terga convertant compluresque milites, etiam non nuUi centuriones, interficiuntur. Instabat agmen Cae- saris atque universum imminebat. Tum vero neque ad explorandum idoneum locum castris neque ad progrediendum data facultate con- sislunt necessario et procul ab aqua et natura iniquo loco 2 castra ponunt.

Sed isdem de causis Caesar, quae supra sunt demonstratae, proelio amplius non lacessit et eo die tabernacula statui passus non est, quo paratiores essent ad in- 3 sequendum omnes, sive noctu sive interdiu erumperent.

Illi animadverso vitio castrorum tota nocte munitiones pro- ferunt castraque castris convertunt. Hoc idem postero die a prima luce faciunt totumque in ea re diem consumunt. Sed quantum opere processerant et castra protulerant, tanto aberant ab aqua longius, et praesenti malo aliis malis reme- 4 dia dabantur. Prima nocte aquandi causa nemo egreditur ex castris ; proximo die praesidio in castris relicto universas 5 ad aquam copias educunt, pabulatum emittitur nemo.

His eos suppliciis male haberi Caesar et necessariam subire deditionem quam proelio decertare malebat. Conatur tamen eos vallo fossaque circummunire, ut quam maxime repentinas eorum eruptiones demoretur; quo necessario 6 descensuros existimabat. Illi et inopia pabuli adducti, et quo essent ad iter expeditiores, omnia sarcinaria iumenta interfici iubent. In his operibus consiliisque biduum con- sumitur; tertio die magna iam pars operis Caesaris pro- cesserat.

IUi impediendae reliquae munitionis causa hora circiter ix signo dato legiones educunt aciemque sub 2 castris instruunt. Sed eisdem 3 causis, quae sunt cognitae, quo minus dimicare vellet, movebatur, atque hoc etiam magis, quod spatii brevitas etiam in fugam coniectis adversariis non multum ad sum- mam victoriae iuvare poterat. Non enim amplius pedum 4 milibus duobus ab castris castra distabant. Hinc duas partes acies occupabant duae ; tertia vacabat, ad incursum atque impetum militum relicta.

Si proelium committeretur, 5 propinquitas castrorum celerem superatis ex fuga receptum dabat. Hac de causa constituerat signa inferentibus resis- tere, prior proelio non lacessere. Acies erat Afraniana duplex legionum v, i tertium in subsidiis locum alariae cohortes obtinebant; Caesaris triplex ; sed primam aciem quatemae cohortes ex 2 V legionibus tenebant, has subsidiariae ternae et rursus aliae totidem suae cuiusque legionis subsequebantur ; sagittarii funditoresque media continebantur acie, equitatus latera cingebat.

Tali instructa acie tenere uterque propositum 3 videbatur: Caesar, ne nisi coactus proelium committeret, ille, ut opera Caesaris impediret. Producitur tamen res, aciesque ad solis occasum continentur; inde utrique in castra discedunt Postero die munitiones institutas Caesar 4 parat perficere; illi vadum fluminis Sicoris temptare, si transire possent. Qua re animadversa Caesar Germanos 5 levis armaturae equitumque partem flumen traicit crebras- que in ripis custodias disponit.

Tandem omnibus rebus obsessi, quartum i iam diem sine pabulo retentis iumentis, aquae, lignorum, frumenti inopia, coUoquium petunt, et id, si fleri possit, semoto a militibus loco. Venitur in eum locum, quem Caesar 3 delegit. Audiente utroque exercitu loquitur Afranius : Non esse aut ipsis aut militibus succensendum, quod fidem erga imperatorem suum Cn.

Pompeium conservare voluerinL 4 Sed satis iam fecisse ofiicio satisque supplicii tulisse. Per- pessos omnium rerum inopiam ; nunc vero paene ut feras circummunitos prohiberi aqua, prohiberi ingressu, neque corpore dolorem neque animo ignominiam ferre posse. Haec quam potest demississime et subiectissime exponit. Ad ea Caesar respondit : Nulli omnium has partes vel querimoniae vel miserationis minus convenisse.

Sic omnium ordinum partes in misericordia con- stitisse, ipsos duces a pace abhorruisse ; eos neque coUoquii neque indutiarum iura servasse et homines imperitos et per 4 coUoquium deceptos crudelissime interfecisse. Accidisse igitur his, quod plerumque hominum nimia pertinacia atque arrogantia accidere soleat, uti eo recurrant et id cupidissime 5 petant, quod paulo ante contempserint.

Neque nunc se illorum humilitate neque aliqua temporis opportunitate pos- tulare, quibus rebus opes augeantur suae; sed eos exercitus, quos contra se multos iam annos aluerint, velle dimitti. Proinde, ut esset dictum, provinciis 1 2 excederent exercitumque dimitterent; si id sit factum, se nociturum nemini. Hanc unam atque extremam esse pacis condicionem. Id vero militibus fuit pergratum et iu- i cundum, ut ex ipsa significatione cognosci potuit, ut, qui aliquid iusti incommodi exspectavissent, ultro praemiura missionis ferrent.

Nam cum de loco et tempore eius rei 2 controversia inferretur, et voce et manibus universi ex vallo, ubi constiterant, significare coeperunt, ut statim dimitte- rentur, neque omni interposita fide firmum esse posse, si in aliud tempus difFerretur.

Paucis cum esset in utramque 3 partem verbis disputatum, res huc deducitur, ut ei, qui ha- beant doraicilium aut possessionera in Hispania, statim, reli- qui ad Varum flumen diraittantur; ne quid eis noceatur, neu 4 quis invitus sacraraentura dicere cogatur, a Caesare cavetur. Caesar ex eo tempore, dum ad flumen Varum veniatur, se frumentum daturum poUicetur. Addit etiam, ut, quod quisque eorum in bello amiserit, quae sint penes milites suos, eis, qui amiserant, restituatur; militibus aequa facta aestimatione pecuniam pro his rebus dissolvit 2 Quascumque postea controversias inter se milites habue- 3 runt, sua sponte ad Caesarem in ius adierunt.

Petreius atque Afranius, cum stipendium ab legionibus paene sedi- tione facta flagitarentur, cuius illi diem nondum venisse dicerent, Caesar ut cognosceret, postularunt, eoque utrique, 4 quod statuit, contenti fuerunt Parte circiter tertia exer- citus eo biduo dimissa duas legiones suas antecedere, reliquas subsequi iussit, ut non longo inter se spatio castra facerent, eique negotio Q. Fufium Calenum legatum prae- 5 ficit. The marginal numbers refer to the sections. Nissen litteris Caesaris a C.

I ; Appian, B. Claudius Marcellus and L. Comelius Lentulus Crus. The former was a cousin of the C. Marcellus who was consul in 50 and brother of M. Marcellus consul in Caesaris relating the proceedings in the senate house on i Jan.

Cassius Longinus, formerly quaestor to Pompey, and M. With great difficulty they persuaded the consuls to read the letter to the senate, but could not induce them to make any definite statement on the immediate subject of the letter ex litteris referre ad senatum. The tribunes were originally only allowed a seat outside the - door of the senate house whence they might watch the proceedings ; at a later period, probably in the second century B.

Some weeks later Caesar made overtures to Lentulus, Cic. Caecilius Metellus Pius. He was consul with Pompey for the last five months of the year 52, and in that year Pompey married his daughter Comelia widow of Publius Crassus.

On the whole I prefer to retain aderat the reading of the Mss. Scipio was known to be CAPP. A few days before this Pompey had travelled with Cicero from Lavemium? Calidius'] one of the praetors of 57, and an unsuccessful candi- date in the Caesarian interest for the consulship of Pompey undertook to provide the legion which he had previously lent to Caesar.

Appian Pompeio trcuiitas atque in Italia retentcu esse ; Cic. Rufus] M. Caelius Rufus, aedile in 50, a strong partisan of Caesar. Letttidi, The plural is more appropriate where the abuse proceeds from various quarters ; so here the reference is to the Pompeian senators generally.

According to Dion XLI. Others take the date to be March ist. Luke V. The resolution was however placed on record as an auctoritas rf yvibfirf CAPP. These proceedings took place on Jan. The noun vespera is archaic and poetic. It was apparently on this day 2 Jan. Dion XLI. Caesar here refers to the meeting of the senate on Jan. Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus, consul Caesar married his daughter Calpumia in I omnibus his. Hls enmity to Caesar was therefore natural. For instances of it cp.

His rejection was due, so far as we know, not to any opposition on the part of Caesar who was in Gaul at the time, but to his own impractic- ability. He bore his defeat with surprising equanimity, Plut. For the form of the expression cp. Ovid Met. The previous year he had been suspected of favouring Caesar, Cic. For instances of such comiption Dr Reid refers to Cic. Lentulus may have based his CAPP. Doubtless many Romans at this time aspired to military supremacy: cp.

Cicero's expression about Pompey Att ix. Dion XL. Caesar seems to mean that Pompey had reconciled himself with persons who had professed a common enmity for himself and Caesar, after causing the burden of their enmity to fall chiefly on the latter during the time that the two were connected by marriage, i. Asiae Syruuque'] I know of no parallel to this genitive after itinere, KH qu. Perhaps the words should be omitted altogether. Flaccus I. For the phrase cp. SuIIa in 88 and 81 took away most of the privileges of the tribunes but left them the right of intercessiOf subject however to strict limitations; cp.

Gracchus who was killed in about the eighth month of his tribunate. He might also have referred to M. Livius Drusus who was murdered in the ninth month of his tribunate in B. The text however is corrupt. It had been issued in 52 and in 63, as well as on other occasions» when the position of affairs was hardly more critical than in this year Mommsen, Staatsrecht iii.

Unissimis] 'his extremely mild demands': it is strange that any editor should retain the MS reading levissimis. The precise nature of the pomerium is disputed but it may be taken in a general way to mean the boundary line of a town or settlement, the ground within which was consecrated and so marked off from the surrounding ager.

It originated, according to Varro Lingua Latina v. Jordan, Topographie Roms i. The reason for the senate meeting outside the walls was to secure the presence of Pompey who as proconsul and armed with the imperium could not enter the city. The place where they met was the temple of Apollo built about B. He probably means the seven legions in Spain, the two taken from Caesar, and the force under Domitius amount- ing to about one more legion.

Mommsen however, R. KH agree in excluding the absent Spanish troops from the account, and suppose the number to be made up by the forces raised by Pompey at the end of 50 Appian, B. This view of Mommsen's is severely and, I think, justly criticised by M. Goler Biirgerkrieg, p. There was no truth in the report, except so far as it might be justified by the defection of one of Caesar's most trusted officers, Labienus, which took place about this time.

Comelius SuUa Faustus son of the dictator Sulla who when he took the title of Felix gave his twin children the appellatives Faustus and Fausta. Mauritaniam'] the north-westem portion of Africa corresponding to part of Morocco and Algeria. Bocchus, son of the Bocchus who surrendered Jugurtha to the Dictator SuUa, was king of the eastern portion and his brother?

Bogud of the westem. By means of Faustus Pompey might hope to establish friendly relations with these princes. The extent of his dominions is described in exaggerated language by Lucan iv. His political attitude is stated in B.

The German editors ignore the difficulty. Marcius Philippus, praetor in 44, son of the consul of 56, for whom see below. The exact method by which this was to be done cannot now be satisfactorily determined; see Mommsen, Rechtsfrage, p. There were in all 14 provinces to dispose of. The province of Syria had been assigned to M. Crassus in 55 for 5 years, together with the conduct of the war against the Parthians.

In 53 Crassus and his son were defeated and slain. L, Domitio'] L. Domitius Ahenobarbus, consul Marcius Philippus, consul He was connected by marriage with the Julian family, being the second husband of Atia, mother of Augustus and daughter of Caesar's sister Julia and M. Atius Balbus.

This would sufficiently account for his being passed over in favour of the later consul Domitius. Similarly L. Aurelius Cotta, consul 65, was passed over, Caesar's mother having been an Aurelia and possibly Cotta's sister. The following genealogical table will make this note clearer. Octavius: 1 L. Marcellus: 2 M. Rechtsfrage, p. Livy, XXI. Flaminium fugisse ne But Caesar who elsewhere in this narrative shows a disregard for truth no doubt relied on his readers having short memories, and I do not see why he should be less likely to make a false statement, if it suited his purpose to do so, than a modem Christian statesman.

Caesar however for his own purposes chooses to ignore these. The subject is fully discussed by Mommsen, Rechtsfrage, p. Caesar invidiously calls them privaii because they had not had the imperium properly conferred on them. It does not appear however that on this occasion any actual violence was used ; cp. Cassius nulia vi expulsi ad Caesarem cum Curione profecti erant: even in Appian, B. Plut Ant. The word armis which occurs in the MSS.

The text is probably corrupt. Gracchus and L. Apuleius Saturninus. Whether their laws were really pemiciosae is another matter. In the case of Tib. Gracchus B. Gracchus and his followers had not even a semblance of legality. Hence consulem languentem in Cic. Domo 91 ; the other accounts in Val. Caesar may also be thinking of the well-known secessiones poptUi in when M.

Valerius Corvus was appointed dictator, and in when Q, Hortensius was appointed, for, though the appointment of a dictator was not quite the same thing as the senatus consultum ultimum by which the senate empowered the higher magistrates to secure the safety of the state, yet the practical effect was much the same, i. The dictatorship was not employed after till revived by Sulla in Gracchus in and by Saturninus in KH. Gracchus was killed with about others in a riot, the opposite party being headed by P.

Scipio Nasica; his brother Gaius in attempted with one attendant to fly from the pursuit of his enemies, but they were overtaken and slain, or, according to another account, committed suicide ; Satuminus was slain with the praetor Servilius Glaucia in the Curia Hostilia by an armed force under the consul C.

January The legion had been levied in 57, cp. It was not till 9 Jan. C ili. Trebonius was in command of four among the Belgae, and C. Fabius of four more among the Aedui. Roscius Fabatus. He was of a different branch of the Julian family to the Dictator. According to Drumann his great great grand- father was brother to Caesar's great grandfather. His father, Caesar's legate, who was consul in 64, is mentioned B.

He had no writings to show. Roscius and L. SalL Cat. As the consular elections took place in July this decree implied, though it was not expressly stated, that Caesar should retain his provincial govemorship from the end of Feb. Suetonius, Caes. Reckoning from this date the two periods of 5 years would not expire till 31 Dec. Suet Caes. Cic Att. This is shown first of all by the name of 'orb' which is bestowed upon it by the general consent of mankind. It is also shown by the evidence of the facts: not only does such a figure in all its parts converge upon itself; not only must it sustain itself, enclosing and holding itself together without the need of any fastenings, and without experiencing an end or a beginning at any part of itself; not only is that shape the one best fitted for the motion with which, as will shortly appear, it must repeatedly revolve, but our eyesight also confirms this belief, because the firmament presents the aspect of a concave hemisphere equidistant in every direction, which would be impossible in the case of any other figure.

Whether the sound of this vast mass whirling in unceasing rotation is of enormous volume and consequently beyond the capacity of our ears to perceive, for my own part I cannot easily say — any more in fact than whether this is true of the tinkling of the stars that travel round with it, revolving in their own orbits; or whether it emits a sweet harmonious music that is beyond belief charming.

To us who live within it the world glides silently alike by day and night. Stamped upon it are countless figures of animals and objects of all kinds — it is not the case, as has been stated by very famous authors, that its structure has an even surface of unbroken smoothness, like that which we observe in birds' eggs: this is proved by the evidence of the facts, since from seeds of all these objects, falling from the sky in countless numbers, particularly in the sea, and usually mixed together, monstrous shapes are generated; and also by the testimony of sight — in one place the figure of a bear, in another of a bull , in another a wain, in another a letter of the alphabet, the middle of the circle across the pole being more radiant.

The Greeks have designated the world by a word that means 'ornament,' and we have given it the name of mundus because of its perfect finish and grace! As for our word caelum, it undoubtedly has the signification 'engraved,' as is explained by Marcus Varro.

Further assistance is contributed by its orderly structure, the circle called the Zodiac being marked out into the likenesses of twelve animals; and also by the uniform regularity in so many centuries of the sun's progress through these signs. Thus the mutual embrace of the unlike results in an interlacing, the light substances being prevented by the heavy ones from flying up, while on the contrary the heavy substances are held from crashing down by the upward tendency of the light ones.

In this way owing to an equal urge in opposite directions the elements remain stationary, each in its own place, bound together by the unresting revolution of the world itself; and with this always running back to its starting-point, the earth is the lowest and central object in the whole, and stays suspended at the pivot of the universe and also balancing the bodies to which its suspension is due; thus being alone motionless with the universe revolving round her she both hangs attached to them all and at the same time is that on which they all rest.

Upheld by the same vapour between earth and heaven, at definite spaces apart, hang the seven stars which owing to their motion we call 'planets,' although no stars wander less than they do. In the midst of these moves the sun, whose magnitude and power are the greatest, and who is the ruler not only of the seasons and of the lands; but even of the stars themselves and of the heaven.

Taking into account all that he effects, we must believe him to be the soul, or more precisely the mind, of the whole world, the supreme ruling principle and divinity of nature. He furnishes the world with light and removes darkness, he obscures and he illumines the rest of the stars, he regulates in accord with nature's precedent the changes of the seasons and the continuous rebirth of the year, he dissipates the gloom of heaven and even calms the storm-clouds of the mind of man, he lends his light to the rest of the stars also; he is glorious and pre-eminent, all-seeing and even all-hearing — this I observe that Homer the prince of literature held to be true in the case of the sun alone.

Whoever God is — provided there is a God — and in whatever region he is, he consists wholly of sense, sight and hearing, wholly of soul, wholly of mind, wholly of himself. To believe in gods without number, and gods corresponding to men's vices as well as to their virtues, like the Goddesses of Modesty , Concord, Intelligence, Hope , Honour, Mercy and Faith — or else, as Democritus held, only two, Punishment and Reward, reaches an even greater height of folly.

Frail, toiling mortality, remembering its own weakness, has divided such deities into groups, so as to worship in sections, each the deity he is most in need of. Consequently different races have different names for the deities, and we find countless deities in the same races, even those of the lower world being classified into groups, and diseases and also many forms of plague, in our nervous anxiety to get them placated. Because of this there is actually a Temple of Fever consecrated by the nation on the Palatine Hill, and one of Bereavement at the Temple of the Household Deities, and an Altar of Misfortune on the Esquiline.

For this reason we can infer a larger population of celestials than of human beings, as individuals also make an equal number of gods on their own, by adopting their own private Junos and Genii; while certain nations have animals, even some loathsome ones, for gods, and many things still more disgraceful to tell of — swearing by rotten articles of food and other things of that sort.

To believe even in marriages taking place between gods, without anybody all through the long ages of time being born as a result of them, and that some are always old and grey, others youths and boys, and gods with dusky complexions, winged, lame, born from eggs, living and dying on alternate days — this almost ranks with the mad fancies of children; but it passes all bounds of shamelessness to invent acts of adultery taking place between the gods themselves, followed by altercation and enmity, and the existence of deities of theft and of crime.

For mortal to aid mortal — this is god; and this is the road to eternal glory: by this road went our Roman chieftains, by this road now proceeds with heavenward step, escorted by his children, the greatest ruler of all time, His Majesty Vespasian , coming to the succour of an exhausted world. To enrol such men among the deities is the most ancient method of paying them gratitude for their benefactions. In fact the names of the other gods, and also of the stars that I have mentioned above, originated from the services of men: at all events who would not admit that it is the interpretation of men's characters that prompts them to call each other Jupiter or Mercury or other names, and that originates the nomenclature of heaven?

That that supreme being, whatever it be, pays heed to man's affairs is a ridiculous notion. Can we believe that it would not be defiled by so gloomy and so multifarious a duty? Can we doubt it? It is scarcely pertinent to determine which is more profitable for the human race, when some men pay no regard to the gods at all and the regard paid by others is of a shameful nature: they serve as the lackeys of foreign ritual, and they carry gods on their fingers; also they pass sentence of punishment upon the monsters they worship, and devise elaborate viands for them; they subject themselves to awful tyrannies, so as to find no repose even in sleep; they do not decide on marriage or having a family or indeed anything else except by the command of sacrifices; others cheat in the very Capitol and swear false oaths by Jupiter who wields the thunderbolts — and these indeed make a profit out of their crimes, whereas the others are penalized by their religious observances.

Everywhere in the whole world at every hour by all men's voices Fortune alone is invoked and named, alone accused, alone impeached, alone pondered, alone applauded, alone rebuked and visited with reproaches; deemed volatile and indeed by most men blind as well, wayward, inconstant, uncertain, fickle in her favours and favouring the unworthy. To her is debited all that is spent and credited all that is received, she alone fills both pages in the whole of mortals' account; and we are so much at the mercy of chance that Chance herself, by whom God is proved uncertain, takes the place of God.

Another set of people banishes fortune also, and attributes events to its star and to the laws of birth, holding that for all men that ever are to be God's decree has been enacted once for all, while for the rest of time leisure has been vouchsafed to Him. This belief begins to take root, and the learned and unlearned mob alike go marching on towards it at the double: witness the warnings drawn from lightning, the forecasts made by oracles, the prophecies of augurs, and even inconsiderable trifles — a sneeze, a stumble — counted as omens.

His late Majesty put abroad a story that on the day on which he was almost overthrown by a mutiny in the army he had put his left boot on the wrong foot. This series of instances entangles unforeseeing mortality, so that among these things but one thing is in the least certain — that nothing certain exists, and that nothing is more pitiable, or more presumptuous, than man! But the chief consolations for nature's imperfection in the case of man are that not even for God are all things possible — for he cannot, even if he wishes, commit suicide, the supreme boon that he has bestowed on man among all the penalties of life, nor bestow eternity on mortals or recall the deceased, nor cause a man that has lived not to have lived or one that has held high office not to have held it — and that he has no power over what is past save to forget it, and to link our fellowship with God by means of frivolous arguments as well that he cannot cause twice ten not to be twenty, or do many things on similar lines: which facts unquestionably demonstrate the power of nature, and prove that it is this that we mean by the word 'God.

We have stated that the stars are attached to the firmament, not assigned to each of us in the way in which the vulgar believe, and dealt out to mortals with a degree of radiance proportionate to the lot of each, the brightest stars to the rich, the smaller ones to the poor, the dim to those who are worn out; they do not each rise with their own human being, nor indicate by their fall that someone's life is being extinguished. There is no such close alliance between us and the sky that the radiance of the stars there also shares our fate of mortality.

When the stars are believed to fall, what happens is that owing to their being overfed with a draught of liquid they give back the surplus with a fiery flash, just as with us also we see this occur with a stream of oil when lamps are lit. But the heavenly bodies have a nature that is eternal — they interweave the world and are blended with its weft; yet their potency has a powerful influence on the earth, indeed it is owing to the effects that they produce and to their brilliance and magnitude that it has been possible for them to become known with such a degree of precision, as we shall show in the proper place.

Also the system of the revolutions of the sky will be more appropriately stated when we deal with geography, since it is entirely related to the earth; only we must not postpone the discoveries that have been made as to the zodiac. Tradition says that Anaximander of Miletus in the fifty-eighth Olympiad was the first person to discover the obliquity of the zodiac, that is, to open the portals of science; and that next Cleostratus explained the signs in it, beginning with the Ram and the Archer; the firmament itself having been explained long before by Atlas.

The following points are certain: 1 The star called Saturn 's is the highest and consequently looks the smallest and revolves in the largest orbit, returning in thirty years at the shortest to its initial station. The orbit of Jupiter is much below it and therefore revolves much faster, completing one rotation every twelve years. The third star is Mars , called by some Hercules ; owing to the proximity of the sun it has a fiery glow; it revolves once in about two years, and consequently, owing to its excessive heat and Saturn 's frost, Jupiter being situated between them combines the influence of each and is rendered healthy.

This property of Venus was first discovered by Pythagoras of Samos about the 42nd Olympiad , [ BC] years after the foundation of Rome. Further it surpasses all the other stars in magnitude, and is so brilliant that alone among stars it casts a shadow by its rays. Consequently there is a great competition to give it a name, some having called it Juno , others Isis , others the Mother of the Gods.

Its influence is the cause of the birth of all things upon earth; at both of its risings it scatters a genital dew with which it not only fills the conceptive organs of the earth but also stimulates those of all animals. It completes the circuit of the zodiac every days, and according to Timaeus is never more than 46 degrees distant from the sun.

The star next to Venus is Mercury , by some called Apollo ; it has a similar orbit, but is by no means similar in magnitude or power. It travels in a lower circle, with a revolution nine days quicker, shining sometimes before sunrise and sometimes after sunset, but according to Cidenas and Sosigenes never more than 22 degrees away from the sun. Consequently the course of these stars also is peculiar, and not shared by those above-mentioned: those are often observed to be a quarter or a third of the heaven away from the sun and travelling against the sun, and they all have other larger circuits of full revolution, the specification of which belongs to the theory of the Great Years.

By the riddle of her transformations she has racked the wits of observers, who are ashamed that the star which is nearest should be the one about which we know least — always waxing or waning, and now curved into the horns of a sickle, now just halved in size, now rounded into a circle; spotted and then suddenly shining clear; vast and full-orbed, and then all of a sudden not there at all; at one time shining all night and at another rising late and for a part of the day augmenting the light of the sun, eclipsed and nevertheless visible during the eclipse, invisible at the end of the month when she is not believed to be in trouble; again at one time low down and at another up aloft, and not even this in a uniform way, but sometimes raised to the sky and sometimes touching the mountain-tops, now borne up to the North and now carried down to the South.

The first human being to observe all these facts about her was Endymion — which accounts for the traditional story of his love for her. We forsooth feel no gratitude towards those whose assiduous toil has given us illumination on the subject of this luminary, while owing to a curious disease of the human mind we are pleased to enshrine in history records of bloodshed and slaughter, so that persons ignorant of the facts of the world may be acquainted with the crimes of mankind.

Consequently the frontier between the moon and the other heavenly bodies is at the point where the air ends and the aether begins. All the space above the moon is clear and filled with continual light, but to us the stars are visible through the night in the same way as other lights in shadows. And these are the reasons why the moon wanes in the night-time; but both of her wanings are irregular and not monthly, because of the slant of the zodiac and the widely varying curves of the moon's course, as has been stated, the motion of the heavenly bodies not always tallying in minute fractional quantities.

The vast size of the sun will be shown with the more certainty from the two bodies, so that there is no need to investigate its size by the evidence of the eyes and by logical inference, arguing that it is immeasurably large for the following reasons: 1 the shadow that it throws of rows of trees along the balks of fields are at equal distances apart for ever so many miles, just as if over the whole space the sun were in the centre; 2 during the equinoxes it reaches the vertical simultaneously for all the inhabitants of the southern region; 3 the shadows of the people living round the Tropic of Cancer fall northward at midday but westward at sunrise, which could not happen unless the sun were much larger than the earth; 4 when it is rising its breadth exceeds Mount Ida , overlapping it widely right and left — and that though it is separated from it by so great a distance.

For shadows are of three shapes, and it is clear that, if the solid object that throws a shadow is equal in area to the shaft of light, the shadow projected is shaped like a pillar and is of infinite length, but if the solid body is larger than the light, the shadow has the shape of an upright spinning-top, so that it is narrowest at the bottom, and infinite in length as in the former case, while if the solid is smaller than the light the result is the figure of a cone narrowing down to end in a point, and this is the nature of the shadow observed during an eclipse of the moon; hence it is proved without any further possibility of doubt remaining that the sun exceeds the earth's size.

Indeed, this is also proved by the silent testimony of nature herself; for why in the division of the turns of the year does the winter sun retire, so as to refresh the earth with the darkness of the nights? After their time the courses of both stars for years were prophesied by Hipparchus , whose work embraced the calendar of the nations and the situations of places and aspects of the peoples — his method being, on the evidence of his contemporaries none other than full partnership in the designs of nature.

O mighty heroes, of loftier than mortal estate, who have discovered the law of those great divinities and released the miserable mind of man from fear, mortality dreading as it did in eclipses of the stars crimes or death of some sort those sublime singers, the bards Stesichorus and Pindar , clearly felt this fear owing to an eclipse of the sun , or in the dying of the moon inferring that she was poisoned and consequently coming to her aid with a noisy clattering of cymbals this alarm caused the Athenian general Nicias , in his ignorance of the cause, to be afraid to lead his fleet out of harbour, so destroying the Athenians ' resources: all hail to your genius, ye that interpret the heavens and grasp the facts of nature, discoverers of a theory whereby you have vanquished gods and men!

Less than years ago the penetration of Hipparchus discovered that an eclipse of the moon also sometimes occurs four months after the one before and an eclipse of the sun six months, and that the latter when above earth is hidden twice in thirty days, but that this eclipse is visible to different nations, and — the most remarkable features of this remarkable occurrence — that when it comes about that the moon is obscured by the shadow of the earth, this sometimes happens to it from the west side and sometimes from the east; and he also discovered for what exact reason, although the shadow causing the eclipse must from sunrise onward be below the earth, it happened once in the past that the moon was eclipsed in the west while both luminaries were visible above the earth.

For the eclipse of both sun and moon within 15 days of each other has occurred even in our time, in the year of the third consulship of the elder Emperor Vespasian and the second consulship of the younger. This fact proves that the planets are of greater magnitude than the moon, since these occasionally become visible even on reaching 7 degrees' distance; but their altitude makes them appear smaller, just as the sun's radiance makes the fixed stars invisible in daytime, although they are shining as much as in the night, which becomes manifest at a solar eclipse and also when the star is reflected in a very deep well.

Afterwards they retire from contact with his rays, and make their morning or 'first' stations in a triangle degrees away, and subsequently their evening risings opposite degrees away, and again approaching from the other side, make their evening or 'second' stations degrees away, till the sun overtaking them at 12 degrees obscures them — this is called their evening setting.

The planet Mars being nearer feels the sun's rays even from its quadrature, at an angle of 90 degrees, which has given to his motion after each rising the name of 'first' or 'second ninety-degree. The two lower planets Mercury and Venus are similarly obscured at their evening conjunction, and when left by the sun make their morning rising the same number of degrees away, and from the further limits of their distance follow the sun and when they have overtaken him are hidden in their morning setting and pass away.

Then they rise in the evening at the same distance apart, as far as the limits we have stated. From these they pass backward to the sun, and disappear in their evening setting. The planet Venus actually makes two stations, morning and evening, after each rise, from the furthest limits of her distance. Mercury 's stations have too short a period to be perceptible. And although our account of these matters will differ in many points from that of our predecessors, we confess that credit for these points also must be given to those who first demonstrated the methods of investigating them: only nobody must abandon the hope that the generations are constantly making progress.

The first is the factor of the circles which in the case of the stars the Greeks designate apsides or arcs it will be necessary to employ Greek terms. Each planet has its own circle, and these are not the same as those of the firmament, since the earth between the two vertices, named in Greek poles, is the centre of the sky, and also of the zodiac, which is situated on a slant between the poles.

The result of this is that they appear to move slower and to be smaller when they are travelling at the highest point of their circuit, but to be larger and travel faster when they have come nearer to the earth, not because they actually accelerate or reduce their natural motions, which are fixed and individual to them, but because lines drawn from the top of the arc to the centre necessarily converge like the spokes of a wheel, and the same motion at one time is perceived as faster and at another slower according to its distance from the centre.

The stars we have mentioned travel through the zodiac, and the only habitable part of the earth is what lies beneath it — all the other parts towards the poles are frost-bound. Only the planet Venus goes two degrees outside the zodiac; this is understood to be the reason that causes some animals to be born even in the desert places of the world.

The moon also wanders through the whole of its breadth, but without going at all outside it. The planet Mercury diverges very widely from these, but without wandering over more than 6 of the 12 degrees of latitude of the zodiac, and these 6 not uniformly but two in the middle of the zodiac, four above it and two below it. Then the sun travels unevenly in the middle of the zodiac between the two halves with a wavy serpentine course, the planet Mars over 4 degrees in the middle, Jupiter one in the middle and two above it, Saturn two like the sun.

This will be the principle of the latitudes of the planets when setting towards the South or rising towards the North. Most people have supposed that with this system agrees also the third mentioned above, that of their rising from the earth to the sky, and that this ascent also is made simultaneously; but this is a mistake. To refute them it is necessary to develop an extremely abstruse argument that embraces all the causes mentioned. It is equally undoubted that the three higher ones moreover increase their motion in their morning risings and diminish it from their first morning stations to their second evening stations.

In view of these facts it will be evident that the latitudes are ascended from their morning rising, because in that state their acceleration first begins to diminish, but in their first stations their altitude also is ascended, since then the numbers first begin to be reduced and the stars begin to recede.

The reason for this must especially be given. When struck in the degree that we stated and by a triangular ray of the sun they are prevented from pursuing a straight course, and are lifted upward by the fiery force. This cannot be directly perceived by our sight, and therefore they are thought to be stationary, which has given rise to the term 'station.

This occurs much more at their evening rising, when they are driven out to the top of their apsides by the full opposing force of the sun, and appear very small because they are at the distance of their greatest altitude and are moving with their smallest velocity — which is proportionately smaller when this occurs in the highest signs of their apsides. From their evening rise their altitude is descended with a velocity now decelerating less and less, but not accelerating before their second stations, when their altitude also is descended, the ray passing above them from the other side and pressing them down again to the earth with the same force as that with which it had raised them to the sky from the former triangle.

So much difference does it make whether the rays come from below or from above, and the same things occur far more in the evening setting. As situated below the sun both have arcs that are the opposite of those of the other planets, and as much of their circle is below the earth as that of the planets mentioned before is above it; and they cannot be further from it than they are because the curve of their arcs does not allow greater elongation there; consequently the edges of their arcs put a limit on a similar principle for each, and compensate for the dimensions of their longitude by the enlargement of their latitude.

But, it will be objected, why do they not reach 46 and 23 degrees always? As a matter of fact they do, but the explanation escapes the theorists. For it is manifest that even their arcs alter, because they never cross the sun; accordingly when the edges have fallen on one side or the other into the actual degree of the sun, then the stars also are understood to have reached their longest distances, but when the edges are short of that, they themselves too are compelled to return with proportionately greater velocity, since with each of them that is always the extreme limit.

For the higher planets travel most quickly in their evening setting, whereas these travel most slowly, and the former are farthest from the earth when their pace is slowest but the latter are highest when their pace is quickest — the reason being that with the latter the circumference of the circle accelerates their pace in the same manner as proximity to the centre does in the case of the former; the former begin to decelerate from their morning setting, but the latter to accelerate.

The former travel backward from their morning to their evening station, the planet Venus from her evening to her morning station. But she begins to climb her latitude after her morning rise, but after her morning station to ascend her altitude and follow the sun, being swiftest and highest at her morning setting; whereas she begins to descend in latitude and decelerate after her evening rising, and to turn back and simultaneously to descend in altitude after her evening station; on the other hand the planet Mercury begins to climb in both ways after his morning rising, but after his evening rising to descend in latitude, and following the sun at an interval of 15 degrees he stands motionless for almost four days.

Afterwards he descends from his altitude and proceeds back from his evening setting to his morning rise. And only this planet and the moon set in as many days as they have risen in; Venus ascends in 15 times as many days as she sets in, while Saturn and Jupiter descend in twice as many, and Mars in actually four times as many. So great is the variety of nature; but the reason is evident — bodies that strain up into the heat of the sun also have difficulty in descending.

It is true that each has its own special hue — Saturn white, Jupiter transparent, Mars fiery, Lucifer bright white, Vesper glaring, Mercury radiant, the moon soft, the sun when rising glowing and afterwards radiant; with these being causally connected also the appearance of the fixed stars. For at one time there is a dense crowd of stars in the sky round the circle of the half-moon, a fine night giving them a gentle radiance, but at another time they are scarce, so that we wonder at their flight, when the full moon hides them or when the rays of the sun or the planets above-mentioned dim our sight.

But the moon herself also is undoubtedly sensitive to the variations of the strength of impact of the rays of the sun, as moreover the curve of the earth dulls their impact, except when the impact of the rays meets at a right angle.

And so the moon is at half in the sun's quadrature, and curved in a hollow circle in its trinal aspect, but waxes to full at the sun's opposition, and then waning exhibits the same configurations at corresponding intervals, on the same principle as the three planets above the sun. The variation is due to the slant of the zodiac, as at every moment an equal part of the firmament is above and below the earth; but the planets that follow a straight path at their rising keep their light for a longer tract and those that follow a slanting path pass in a swifter period.

Consequently heavenly fire is spit forth by the planet as crackling charcoal flies from a burning log, bringing prophecies with it, as even the part of himself that he discards does not cease to function in its divine tasks.

And this is accompanied by a very great disturbance of the air, because moisture collected causes an overflow, or because it is disturbed by the birth-pangs so to speak of the planet in travail. The penetrating genius of Pythagoras , however, inferred that the distance of the moon from the earth was 15, miles, and that of the sun from the moon twice that figure, and of the sun from the twelve signs of the Zodiac three times.

Our fellow-countryman Sulpicius Gallus also held this view. Posidonius holds that mists and winds and clouds reach to a height of not less than 5 miles from the earth, but that from that point the air is clear and liquid and perfectly luminous, but that the distance between the cloudy air and the moon is , miles and between the moon and the sun , miles, it being due to this distance that the sun's vast magnitude does not burn up the earth. The majority of writers, however, have stated that the clouds rise to a height of miles.

These figures are really unascertained and impossible to disentangle, but it is proper to put them forward became they have been put forward already, although they are matters in which the method of geometrical inference, which never misleads, is the only method that it is possible not to reject, were anybody desirous of pursuing such questions more deeply, and with the intention of establishing not precise measurement for to aspire to that would mark an almost insane absorption in study but merely a conjectural calculation.

It is marvellous to what length the depravity of man's intellect will go when lured on by some trifling success, in the way in which reason furnishes impudence with its opportunity in the case of the calculations above stated. And when they have dared to guess the distances of the sun from the earth they apply the same figures to the sky, on the ground that the sun is at its centre, with the consequence that they have at their finger's ends the dimensions of the world also.

For they argue that the circumference of a circle is us times its diameter, as though the measure of the heavens were merely regulated from a plumb-line! This computation is a most shameful business, since the addition of the distance of the zodiac itself to the circle of Saturn produces a multiple that is even beyond reckoning.

There are also stars that suddenly come to birth in the heaven itself; of these there are several kinds. The Greeks call them 'comets,' in our language 'long-haired stars,' because they have a blood-red shock of what looks like shaggy hair at their top. The Greeks also give the name of 'bearded stars' to those from whose lower part spreads a mane resembling a long beard.

To this class belongs the comet about which Titus Imperator Caesar in his 5th consulship wrote an account in his famous poem, that being its latest appearance down to the present day. The same stars when shorter and sloping to a point have been called 'Daggers'; these are the palest of all in colour, and have a gleam like the flash of a sword, and no rays, which even the Quoit-star, which resembles its name in appearance but is in colour like amber, emits in scattered form from its edge. The 'Tub-star' presents the shape of a cask, with a smoky light all round it.

The 'Horned star' has the shape of a horn, like the one that appeared when Greece fought the decisive battle of Salamis. The 'Torch-star' resembles glowing torches, the ' Horse -star horses ' manes in very rapid motion and revolving in a circle. There also occurs a shining comet whose silvery tresses glow so brightly that it is scarcely possible to look at it, and which displays within it a shape in the likeness of a man's countenance.

There also occur ' Goat comets,' enringed with a sort of cloud resembling tufts of hair. The shortest period of visibility on record for a comet is 7 days, the longest Aristotle also records that several may be seen at the same time — a fact not observed by anyone else, as far as I am aware — and that this signifies severe winds or heat. Comets also occur in the winter months and at the south pole, but comets in the south have no rays. A terrible comet was seen by the people of Ethiopia and Egypt , to which Typhon the king of that period gave his name; it had a fiery appearance and was twisted like a coil, and it was very grim to behold: it was not really a star so much as what might be called a ball of fire.

Planets and all other stars also occasionally have spreading hair. But sometimes there is a comet in the western sky, usually a terrifying star and not easily expiated: for instance, during the civil disorder in the consulship of Octavius , and again during the war between Pompey and Caesar , or in our day about the time of the poisoning which secured the bequest of the empire by Claudius Caesar to Domitius Nero , and thereafter during Nero 's principate shining almost continuously and with a terrible glare.

People think that it matters in what direction a comet darts, what star's strength it borrows, what shapes it resembles, and in what places it shines; that if it resembles a pair of flutes. It is a portent for the art of music, in the private parts of the constellations it portends immorality, if it forms an equilateral triangle or a rectangular quadrilateral in relation to certain positions of the fixed stars, it portends men of genius and a revival of learning, in the head of the Northern or the Southern Serpent it brings poisonings.

His late Majesty Augustus had deemed this comet very propitious to himself; as it had appeared at the beginning of his rule, at some games which, not long after the decease of his father Caesar , as a member of the college founded by him he was celebrating in honour of Mother Venus. In fact he made public the joy that it gave him in these words: 'On the very days of my Games a comet was visible for seven days in the northern part of the sky.

It was rising about an hour before sunset, and was a bright star, visible from all lands. The common people believed that this star signified the soul of Caesar received among the spirits of the immortal gods, and on this account the emblem of a star was added to the bust of Caesar that we shortly afterwards dedicated in the forum. Of these there are two kinds: one sort are called lampades, which means torches, the other bolides missiles , — that is the sort that appeared at the time of the disasters of Modena.

The difference between them is that 'torches' make long tracks, with their front part glowing, whereas a 'boils' glows throughout its length, and traces a longer path. There also occurs a yawning of the actual sky, called chasma,. My own view is that these occurrences take place at fixed dates owing to natural forces, like all other events, and not, as most people think, from the variety of causes invented by the cleverness of human intellects; it is true that they were the harbingers of enormous misfortunes, but I hold that those did not happen because the marvellous occurrences took place but that these took place because the misfortunes were going to occur, only the reason for their occurrence is concealed by their rarity, and consequently is not understood as are the risings and setting of the planets described above and many other phenomena.

Similar haloes occur round the moon and round The principal fixed stars. It is also reported that once several suns were seen at midday at the Bosphorus , and that these lasted from dawn till sunset. In former times three suns have often been seen at once, for example in the consulships of Spurius Postumius and Quintus Mucius , of Quintus Marcius and Marcus Porcius , of Marcus Antonius and Publius Dolabella , and of Marcus Lepidus and Lucius Plancus ; and our generation saw this during the principate of his late Majesty Claudius , in his consulship, when Cornelius Orfitus was his colleague.

It is not stated that more than three suns at a time have ever been seen hitherto. It was seen by the proconsul Silanus and his suite. I have seen a radiance of star-like appearance clinging to the javelins of soldiers on sentry duty at night in front of the rampart; and on a voyage stars alight on the yards and other parts of the ship, with a sound resembling a voice, hopping from perch to perch in the manner of birds.

These when they come singly are disastrously heavy and wreck ships, and if they fall into the hold burn them up. If there are two of them, they denote safety and portend a successful voyage; and their approach is said to put to flight the terrible star called Helena : for this reason they are called Castor and Pollux , and people pray to them as gods for aid at sea. They also shine round men's heads at evening time; this is a great portent. All these things admit of no certain explanation; they are hidden away in the grandeur of nature.

Now the remaining noteworthy facts as to the heavens: for the name 'heaven' was also given by our ancestors to this which is otherwise designated 'air' — the whole of that apparently empty space which pours forth this breath of life. This region below the moon, and a long way below it as I notice is almost universally agreed , blends together an unlimited quantity from the upper element of air and an unlimited quantity of terrestrial vapour, being a combination of both orders.

From it come clouds, thunder-claps and also thunderbolts, hail, frost, rain, storms and whirlwinds; from it come most of mortals' misfortunes, and the warfare between the elements of nature. The force of the stars presses down terrestrial objects that strive to move towards the sky, and also draws to itself things that lack spontaneous levitation. Rain falls, clouds rise, rivers dry up, hailstorms sweep down; rays scorch, and impinging from every side on the earth in the middle of the world, then are broken and recoil and carry with them the moisture they have drunk up.

Steam falls from on high and again returns on high. Empty winds sweep down, and then go back again with their plunder. So many living creatures draw their breath from the upper air; but the air strives in the opposite direction, and the earth pours back breath to the sky as if to a vacuum. Thus as nature swings to and fro like a kind of sling, discord is kindled by the velocity of the world's motion.

Nor is the battle allowed to stand still, but is continually carried up and whirled round, displaying in an immense globe that encircles the world the causes of things, continually overspreading another and another heaven interwoven with the clouds.

This is the realm of the winds. On this account more facts have to be set out at the same time. For who can doubt that summer and winter and the yearly vicissitudes observed in the seasons are caused by the motion of the heavenly bodies? Therefore as the nature of the sun is understood to control the year's seasons, so each of the other stars also has a force of its own that creates effects corresponding to its particular nature.

Some are productive of moisture dissolved into liquid, others of moisture hardened into frost or coagulated into snow or frozen into hail, others of a blast of air, others of warmth or heat, others of dew, others of cold. But it must not be thought that the stars are of the size that they appear to the sight, since the consideration of their immense altitude proves that none of them is smaller than the moon.

Consequently each of them exercises its own nature in its own motion, a fact which the transits of Saturn in particular make clear by their storms of rain. Nor does this power belong to the moving stars only, but also to many those that are fixed to the sky, whenever they are impelled forward by the approach of the planets or goaded on by the impact of their rays, as we observe occurring in the case of the Little Pigs , the Greek name for which is consequently the Hyades , a word denoting rain.

Indeed some stars move of themselves and at fixed times — compare the rising of the Kids. But the rising of the constellation Arcturus is almost always accompanied by a hail-storm. At its rise the seas are rough, wine in the cellars ripples in waves, pools of water are stirred. There is a wild animal in Egypt called the gazelle that according to the natives stands facing this dog -star at its rise, and gazing at it as if in worship, after first giving a sneeze.

It is indeed beyond doubt that dogs throughout the whole of that period are specially liable to rabies. Some men are paralysed by a star, others suffer periodic disturbances of the stomach or sinews or bead or mind. The olive and white poplar and willow turn round their leaves at the solstice. Fleabane hung up in the house to dry flowers exactly on midwinter day, and inflated skins burst. This may surprise one who does not notice in daily experience that one plant, called heliotrope, always looks towards the sun as it passes and at every hour of the day turns with it, even when it is obscured by a cloud.

Indeed persistent research has discovered that the influence of the moon causes the shells of oysters, cockles and all shell-fish to grow larger and again smaller in bulk, and moreover that the phases of the moon affect the tissues of the shrewmouse, and that the smallest animal, the ant, is sensitive to the influence of the planet and at the time of the new moon is always slack.

This makes ignorance all the more disgraceful to man, especially as he admits that with some cattle diseases of the eyes increase and diminish with the moon. His excuse is the heaven's vastness, being divided at an enormous height into 72 signs, that is, shapes of things or of animals into which the learned have mapped out the sky.

In them they have indeed noted stars as being specially remarkable for their influence or their appearance, for instance the seven which they have named the Pleiades in the tail of the Bull and the Little Pigs in his forehead, and Bootes the star that follows the Seven Plough- oxen.

Their density and bulk are conjectured with certain inference from the fact that they obscure the sun, which is otherwise visible even to those diving into water to whatever depth. And I agree that these produce storms, and if there is wind or steam struggling in the cloud, it gives out claps of thunder, if it bursts out on fire, flashes of lightning, if it forces its way on a longer track, heat-lightning. The latter cleaves the cloud, the flashes burst through it, and thunder-claps are the blows of the fires colliding, causing fiery cracks at once to flash out in the clouds.

It is also possible for breath emerging from the earth, when pressed down by the counter-impact of the stars, to be checked by a cloud and so cause thunder, nature choking down the sound while the struggle goes on but the crash sounding when the breath bursts out, as when a skin is stretched by being blown into. It is also possible for this breath, whatever it is, to be set on fire by the friction during its headlong progress.

It is also possible for it to be struck out by the impact of the clouds, as by that of two stones, with heat-lightning flashing out like sparks. But all these occurrences are accidental — they cause mere senseless and ineffectual thunder-claps, as their coming obeys no principle of nature — they merely cleave mountains and seas, and all their other blows are ineffectual; but the former are prophetical and sent from on high, they come by fixed causes and from their own stars.

For we see winds arising both from rivers and bays and from the sea even when calm, and others, called altani, arising from the land; the latter when they come back again from the sea are called turning winds, but if they go on, offshore winds. So again are caverns, like the one with an enormous gaping mouth on the coast of Dalmatia , from which, if you throw some light object into it, even in calm weather a gust like a whirlwind bursts out; the name of the place is Senta.

Also it is said that in the province of Cyrenaica there is a certain cliff, sacred to the South wind, which it is sacrilege for the hand of man to touch, the South wind immediately causing a sandstorm. Even manufactured vessels in many houses if shut up in the dark have peculiar exhalations. Thus there must be some cause for this. The latter, regular and blowing steadily, and felt not by some particular tract only but by whole countries, and not being breezes nor tempests but winds — even their name being a masculine word — whether they are caused by the continuous motion of the world and the impact of the stars travelling in the opposite direction or whether wind is the famous 'breath' that generates the universe by fluctuating to and fro as in a sort of womb, or air whipped by the irregular impact of the planets and the non-uniform emission of their rays, or whether they issue forth from these nearer stars which are their own or fall from those stars which are fixed in the heaven — it is manifest that the winds too obey a law of nature that is not unknown, even if not yet fully known.

This makes me all the more surprised that, although when the world was at variance, and split up into kingdoms, that is, sundered limb from limb, so many people devoted themselves to these abstruse researches; especially when wars surrounded them and hosts were untrustworthy, and also when rumours of pirates , the foes of all mankind, terrified intending travellers — so that now-a-days a person may learn some facts about his own region from the notebooks of people who have never been there more truly than from the knowledge of the natives — yet now in these glad times of peace under an emperor who so delights in productions of literature and science, no addition whatever is being made to knowledge by means of original research, and in fact even the discoveries of our predecessors are not being thoroughly studied.

The rewards were not greater when the ample successes were spread out over made the discoveries in question with no other many students, and in fact the majority of these reward at all save the consciousness of benefiting posterity. Age has overtaken the characters of mankind, not their revenues, and now that every sea has been opened up and every coast offers hospitable landing, an immense multitude goes on voyages — but their object is profit not knowledge; and in their blind engrossment with avarice they do not reflect that knowledge is a more reliable means even of making profit.

Consequently in view of these thousands of persons who go on voyages I will give a more detailed account of the winds than is perhaps suited to the task I have set in hand. Their successors adopted a compromise, adding to the short list four winds from the long one. There are consequently two winds in each of the four quarters of the heaven: Subsolanus blowing from the equinoctial sunrise E.

The more numerous scheme had inserted four between these: Thrascias N. Nor is this the end, inasmuch as others have also added one named Meses between Boreas N. There are also certain winds peculiar to particular races, which do not go outside a special region, e.

Some people call Caecias E. Hellespontias, and others have other variants for these names. Similarly in the province of Narbonne the most famous of the winds is Circius W. Fabianus asserts that South winds also do not penetrate Egypt — which reveals the law of nature that even winds have their prescribed limits as well as seasons. This also practically applies to all the winds whose positions I shall give afterwards, although every leap-year they come a day earlier, but they keep the regular rule in the period that follows.

Certain persons give the name Chelidonias to the West wind on the 19th February, owing to the appearance of the swallow, but some call it Ornithias, from the arrival of the birds on the 71st day after the shortest day, when it blows for nine days. Opposite to the West wind is the wind that we have called Subsolanus E. The rise of the Pleiades in the same degrees of Taurus on May 10 brings summer; it is a period of South wind, Auster , the opposite of Septentrio.

But in the hottest period of summer the Dog-star rises, when the sun is entering the first degree of Leo — this day is July The Dog-star 's rise is preceded for about eight days by North-east winds: these are called the Forerunners. But two days after his rising the North-east winds begin again, and continue blowing steadily for 30 days; these are called Etesian or Annual winds.

They are believed to be softened by the sun's warmth being reinforced by the heat of the star; and they are the most regular of any of the winds. They are followed in turn by South winds, continuing to the rise of Areturus , which occurs 40 days before the autumnal equinox.

With the equinox begins the North-west wind; this, the opposite of Volturnus , marks the beginning of autumn. About 44 days after the autumnal equinox the setting of the Pleiades marks the beginning of winter, which it is customary to date on November 11; this is the period of the winter Aquilo, which is very unlike the summer one mentioned above; it is opposite to the South-west wind. But for six days before the shortest day and six days after it the sea calms down for the breeding of the halcyons from which these days derive their name.

The rest of the time there is wintry weather. However, not even the fury of the storms closes the sea; pirates first compelled men by the threat of death to rush into death and venture on the winter seas, but now avarice exercises the same compulsion. The Southwest and especially the South are for Italy the damp winds; it is said that on the Black Sea the East-north-east also attracts clouds. The North-west and South-east are dry, except when they are falling.

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Mis redes sociales: - Twitch: www. Follow Lucas as he plays Caesar IV! The latest version of the Caesar franchise is a little dated compared to strategy games now Let's Play: Caesar IV CaesarIV kurek LetsPlay. Upgrade all your residential buildings as much as you can. You'll need Caesar IV. We're back in Caralis, this is getting to be a little tougher than I envisaged but shouldn't take too long! We crack on with this mission. BTW, I'm making it look soooo much harder than it actually is!

Suh The Little Dictator. Slowly I build a clay pit, sheep farm, two pottery factories, and a second prefect and engineer near the clay pit. I open trade with Caesalpine Gaul and build a trade port to import iron and sell pottery. I build timber camp, second clay pit, third pottery, two warehouses one for basic goods near the housing, one for clay and timber near the clay pits.

When food is available, I turn on the food market and basic goods market, add another domus, and turn on the tax office and odeum. Then I build a weapon factory near the shore, and open trade with Macedonia and start selling weapons. By November, I have two clothing factories near the timber cutter to the west of the city, a second weapon factory and a vineyard and wine factory near the ports.

I realize that my store of denarii is down to , and discover that the trade ports are still mothballed. I turn off clay and timber industries temporarily until I have more plebs and I un-mothball the trade ports. After selling a few weapons and pottery, I send off the tribute. Then I build another grape farm and wine factory. As the domus upgrade, I add a bathhouse and school. I start with a cattle farm on the western farmland.

Because this farm is so far from the markets, I build a granary next to the grain farms near my market square and set it to 16 meat. I import gold, build a jewellery factory, build a third grain farm and a third vegetable farm, another grape farm and wine factory, and another warehouse to hold pottery and wine. I place an exotic market and two patrician houses. Everything is going well. In March, Rome demands 10 wine. I stockpile wine. In April, Rome demands tribute. I send the denarii and add a few decorations to my patrician housing.

I start importing salt. I consult the trade advisor again and set the import level to two salt and two perfume. This will slow the development of my housing but will be easier on the budget. Now I need more entertainment for the patricians, so I build another domus, a theatre and an actor guild.

In July, I ship the wine and build two more patrician houses. In August, Rome requests 40 pottery, which I ship in October.

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After completing my Caesar III A favorite series from my In this episode we take a look at the Caralis campaign. Caesar IV Ep. The second of our economic Republic cities. This team with a huge emphasis on prosperity and introducing some more Mis redes sociales: - Twitch: www. Follow Lucas as he plays Caesar IV!

The latest version of the Caesar franchise is a little dated compared to strategy games now Let's Play: Caesar IV CaesarIV kurek LetsPlay. Upgrade all your residential buildings as much as you can. I see lots of farmland. All types of farms are available, but the only resources are timber and clay.

Review the trading possibilities. Check the rating requirements. The plan: It looks like prosperity will be the issue on this map, so I am going to need patricians. The information needed for calculating prosperity can be found here. Then I settle for an expanded version of my Narbo block that will allow for five patrician houses.

I lay this out in the central part of the map, using some of the farmland. Caralis housing block north is upper right I plan to have grain, vegetables and wine on the eastern farmland near the markets , and sheep and cattle on the western side. My first industry will be pottery because we can sell it to Caesalpine Gaul. I will place a sheep farm early in the game because wool grows slowly. The markets, tax office and odeum are mothballed until we need them. After setting the labour priorities, I un-pause the game.

Slowly I build a clay pit, sheep farm, two pottery factories, and a second prefect and engineer near the clay pit. I open trade with Caesalpine Gaul and build a trade port to import iron and sell pottery. I build timber camp, second clay pit, third pottery, two warehouses one for basic goods near the housing, one for clay and timber near the clay pits. When food is available, I turn on the food market and basic goods market, add another domus, and turn on the tax office and odeum.

Then I build a weapon factory near the shore, and open trade with Macedonia and start selling weapons. By November, I have two clothing factories near the timber cutter to the west of the city, a second weapon factory and a vineyard and wine factory near the ports. I realize that my store of denarii is down to , and discover that the trade ports are still mothballed. I turn off clay and timber industries temporarily until I have more plebs and I un-mothball the trade ports.

After selling a few weapons and pottery, I send off the tribute. Then I build another grape farm and wine factory. As the domus upgrade, I add a bathhouse and school. I start with a cattle farm on the western farmland. Because this farm is so far from the markets, I build a granary next to the grain farms near my market square and set it to 16 meat.

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